DOI: 10.14704/nq.2014.12.3.738

Extensive Quantum Theory of DNA and Biological String

Yi-Fang Chang

Abstract


Assume that quantum elements of DNA are A-T and G-C. According to basic thinking of NeuroQuantology, the extensive quantum theory of DNA is researched, and corresponding quantum theory and its many mathematical methods are applied to DNA and molecular biology. From this we discuss symmetry and supersymmetry of DNA, and the quantum theory and equations of DNA, in particular, the SU(2) gauge theory and some solutions of equation. Further, we propose the string theory of DNA and general biological string. Some solutions and functions of these theories may describe probably DNA, biological things and their motions. Finally, we propose quantitatively a universal entropy theory on evolution of any natural and social systems.

Keywords


quantum theory; DNA; string; supersymmetry; entropy; evolution

Full Text:

Full Text PDF

References


Actor A. Classical solutions of SU(2) Yang-Mills theories. Rev Mod Phys 1979; 51(3):461-525.

Arnowitt R and Nath P. Non-universality effects and dark matter in gravity mediated supersymmetry breaking. Nucl Phys Proc Suppl 1998; B62(1-3):241-247.

Bang O and Peyrard M. Generation of high-energy localized vibrational modes in nonlinear Klein-Gordon lattices. Phys Rev 1996; E53:4143-4152.

Barbi M, Cocco S and Peyrard M. Helicoidal model for DNA opening. Phys Lett 1999; A253:358-369.

Benham CJ, Harvey S, Olson WK and Swigon D. Mathematics of DNA Structure, Function and Interactions. Springer, 2009.

Bernroider G. Quantum-neurodynamics and the relation to conscious experience. NeuroQuantology 2003; 1(2):163-168.

Bodnar AG, Harley CB, Wright WE, et al., Extension of life-span by introduction of telomerase into normal human cells. Science. 1998; 279:349-352.

Brown D and Rothery P. Models in Biology: Mathematics, Statistics and Computing. John Wiley & Sons Ltd. 1993.

Chang Yi-Fang. Development of Titius-Bode law and the astronomic quantum theory. J Yunnan Univ 1993; 16(4):297-203.

Chang Yi-Fang. Internal mechanism of isolated systems and new research on limitations of second law of thermodynamics. In Entropy, Information and Intersecting Science. Yu C.Z. et al., Ed. Yunnan Univ. Press. 1994. p53-60.

Chang Yi-Fang. Possible decrease of entropy due to internal interactions in isolated systems. Apeiron 1997; 4(4): 97-99.

Chang Yi-Fang. Development of Titius-Bode law and the extensive quantum theory. Phys Essays 2002; 15(2):133-137.

Chang Yi-Fang. Supersymmetry, super-unification and higher dimensional complex space in particle physics. J Yunnan University 2003; 25(1):37-40.

Chang Yi-Fang. Entropy, fluctuation magnified and internal interactions. Entropy 2005; 7(3):190-198.

Chang Yi-Fang. Development of the extensive quantum theory and its applications in biology, chemistry and physics. J Jishou University 2006; 27(5):34-38.

Chang Yi-Fang. Necessary condition of decrease of entropy in isolated systems and chemical reactions. J Xinyang Normal Univ 2009b; 22(1):30-34.

Chang Yi-Fang. Extensive quantum biology, applications of nonlinear biology and nonlinear mechanism of memory. NeuroQuantology 2012a; 10(2):183-189.

Chang Yi-Fang. Nonlinear whole biology and loop quantum theory applied to biology. NeuroQuantology 2012b; 10(2):190-197.

Chang Yi-Fang. From emergence string to mass formulas of hadrons and symmetric lifetime formulas of hadrons. International Review of Physics 2012c; 6(3):261-268.

Chang Yi-Fang. “Negative temperature” fallacy, sufficient-necessary condition on entropy decrease in isolated systems and some possible tests in physics, chemistry and biology. International Review of Physics. 2012d; 6(6):469-475.

Chang Yi-Fang. Neural synergetics, Lorenz model of brain, soliton-chaos double solutions and physical neurobiology. NeuroQuantology 2013a; 11(1):56-62.

Chang Yi-Fang. Possible entropy decrease in biology and some new research of biothermodynamics. NeuroQuantology 2013b; 11(2):189-196.

Chang Yi-Fang. A testable application of nonlinear whole neurobiology: Possible transformation among vision and other sensations. NeuroQuantology 2013c; 11(3): 399-404.

Chang Yi-Fang. Chaos, fractal in biology, biothermodynamics and matrix representation on hypercycle. NeuroQuantology 2013d; 11(4):527-536.

Chang Yi-Fang. Chemical reactions and possible entropy decrease in isolated system. International Journal of Modern Chemistry 2013e; 4(3): 126-136.

Chang Yi-Fang. Unified quantum statistics, possible violation of Pauli Exclusion Principle, nonlinear equations and some basic problems of entropy. International Review of Physics 2013f; 7(4):299-306.

Chang Yi-Fang. Grand unified theory applied to gravitational collapse, entropy decrease in astronomy, singularity and quantum fluctuation. International Journal of Modern Applied Physics 2013g; 3(1):8-25.

Chang Yi-Fang. Social thermodynamics, social hydrodynamics and some mathematical applications in social sciences. International Journal of Modern Social Science 2013h; 2(2):94-108.

Chang Yi-Fang. Catalyst theory, entropy decrease in isolated system and transformation of internal energy. International Journal of Modern Chemistry 2014; 6(2): 74-86.

Cocco S, Barbi M and Peyrard M. Vector nonlinear Klein-Gordon lattices: General derivation of small amplitude envelope soliton solutions. Phys Lett 1999; A253:161-167.

Collins PDB. An Introduction to Regge Theory and High Energy Physics. Cambridge University Press, 1977.

Cramer F. Chaos and Order: The Complex Structure of Living Systems. Verlags-Anstalt, 1988.

Csaki C and Murayama H. New confining N=1 supersymmetric gauge theories. Phys Rev 1999; D59(6): 065001/1-16.

Culik II K and Harju T. Splicing semigroups of dominoes and DNA. Discrete Applied Mathematics 1991; 31:261-277.

Erol M. Schrödinger wave equation and function: Basics and concise relations with consciousness/mind. NeuroQuantology 2010; 8(1):101-109.

Fayet P and Ferrara S. Supersymmetry. Phys Reports 1977; 32(5):249-334.

Feld BT. Models of Elementary Particles. Blaisdell Publishing Company, 1969.

Fitch WM, Smith TF and Ralph WW. Mapping the order of DNA restriction fragments. Gene 1983; 22:19-29.

Flugge S. Practical Quantum Mechanics. Springer-Velag Berlin Heidelberg, 1999.

Goldstein L and Waterman MS. Mapping DNA by stochastic relaxation. Advances in Applied Mathematics 1987; 8:194-207.

Gribbin GR. The Search for Superstrings, Symmetry, and the Theory of Everything. New York: Little Brown, 1999.

Hashimoto K, Hata H and Sasakura N. Multi-pronged strings and BPS saturated solutions in SU(N) supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. Nucl Phys 1998; B535(1-2):83-115.

Head T. Formal language theory and DNA: An analysis of the generative capacity of specific recombinant behaviors. Bull Math Biol 1987; 49:737-759.

Konopka T, Markopoulou F and Severini S. Quantum graphity: A model of emergent locality. Phys Rev 2008; D77(10):104029.

Landau LD and Lifshitz EM. Quantum Mechanics, Non-Relativistic Theory. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1977.

Landau LD and Lifshitz EM. Statistical Physics. Pergamon Press, 1980.

Leibundgut M and Minkowski P. On the spontaneous identity of chiral and supersymmetry breaking in pure super Yang-Mills theories. Nucl Phys 1998; B531(1-3): 95-107.

Li J. A timeless and spaceless quantum theory of consciousness. NeuroQuantology 2013; 11(3): 431-442.

Macilwain C. Systems biology: evolving into the mainstream. Cell 2011; 144(3):839-841.

Masip M and Mastromatteo I. Higgsino dark matter in partly supersymmetric models. Phys Rev 2006; D73(1):015007.

Micklos DA, Freyer GA and Greg DA. DNA Science: A First Course (Second Edition). Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 2003.

Naik S. Deriving exact prepotential for N=2 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories from superconformal anomaly with rank two gauge groups. Nucl Phys 1999; B538(1-2):137-148.

Nelson AE. Dynamical supersymmetry breaking. Nucl Phys Proc Suppl 1998; B62(1-3):261-265.

Oltvai ZN and Barabasi AL. Systems biology. Life’s complexity pyramid. Science 2002; 298: 763-764.

Peyrard M. Using DNA to probe nonlinear localized excitation? Europhysics Letters 1998; 44: 271-277.

Peyrard M and Bishop AR. Statistical mechanics of a nonlinear model for DNA denaturation. Phys Rev Lett 1989; 62:2755-2758.

Pratt D. Consciousness, causality, and quantum physics. NeuroQuantology 2003; 1(1):58-67.

Salam A and Strathdee J. Superfields and Fermi-Bose symmetry. Phys Rev 1975; D11(11): 1521-1536.

Salam A and Strathdee J. Supersymmetry and superfields. Fortschr Phys 1978; 26(2):57-142.

Shan G. A possible quantum basis of panpsychism. NeuroQuantology 2003; 1(1):4-9.

Tarlaci S. Quantum field theory and consciousness. NeuroQuantology 2005; 3:228-245.

Tarlacı S. Why we need quantum physics for cognitive neuroscience. NeuroQuantology 2010a; 8(1):66-76.

Tarlacı S. A historical view of the relation between quantum mechanics and the brain: a NeuroQuantologic perspective. NeuroQuantology 2010b; 8(2):120-136.

Tarlacı S. On probabilistic quantum thinking. NeuroQuantology 2010c; 8(4):S1-2.

Tarlacı S. What should a consciousness mind-brain theory be like? Reducing the secret of the rainbow to the colours of a prism. NeuroQuantology 2013; 11(2):360-377.

Terraneo M, Peyrard M and Casati G. Controlling the energy flow in nonlinear lattices: a model for a thermal rectifier. Phys Rev Lett 2002; 88(9):094302.

Ting JL and Peyrard M. Effective breather trapping mechanism for DNA transcription. Phys Rev 1996; E53:1011-1020.

Veneziano G. Construction of a crossing-symmetric, Regge-behaved amplitude for linear rising trajectories. Nuovo Cimento 1968; A57(1):190-197.

Vimal RLP. Subjective experience aspect of consciousness. Part I: Integration of classical, quantum, and subquantum concepts. NeuroQuantology 2009a; 7(3):390-410.

Vimal RLP. Subjective experience aspect of consciousness. Part II: Integration of classical and quantum concepts for emergence hypothesis. NeuroQuantology 2009b; 7(3):411-434.

Vimal RLP. Towards a theory of everything. Part II: Introduction of consciousness in Schrödinger equation and standard model. NeuroQuantology 2010a; 8(3):304-313.

Vimal RLP. Towards a theory of everything. Part III: Introduction of consciousness in loop quantum gravity and string theory and unification of experiences with fundamental forces. NeuroQuantology 2010b; 8(4):571-599.

Waterman MS and Griggs JR. Interval graphs and maps of DNA. Bull Math Biol 1986; 48:189-195.

Weinberg S. The Quantum Theory of Field. Vo.III. Combridge University Press, 2000.

Zhang CT. Soliton excitations in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) double helices. Phys Rev 1987; A35:2886-2891.


Supporting Agencies

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.



| NeuroScience + QuantumPhysics> NeuroQuantology :: Copyright 2001-2019