DOI: 10.14704/nq.2018.16.11.1777

The Impact of Electromagnetic Field on Conditioned Reflex Memory

Khatuna Dondoladze, Marina Nikolaishvili, Tea Museliani, Gogi Jikia, David Zurabashvili


The aim of this study is to investigate whether household frequency electromagnetic field affect memory processes. Apparently in various studies researchers note that different frequencies electromagnetic field improve or impair memory. In memory process hormone ghrelin plays an important role, which participates in the neurogenesis processes of memory formation. We have studied effect of electromagnetic field (EMF) on ghrelin`s concentration and memory changes under EMF. We exposed male Wistar rats under EMF. The household frequency electromagnetic field was generated with a GSM mobile phone. For memory tests we used the two feeder and five choice serial reaction time tests (5-CSRTT). With this latter test we studied attention and concentration and in serum we measured the concentration of ghrelin by immunoferminal analysis. In serum ghrelin concentration increased in electromagnetic field exposure group, after 30th day of the exposure level of ghrelin is higher than after 10 day of exposure and the sham control group. During training EMF exposure group rats task needed more trials (sessions) than in sham control group (in 5-CSRTT in sham control and EMF exposure groups, the values were 92,9±2,084 and 101,8±2,764, respectively. n=10; p<0.05, in two feeder tests in sham control and EMF exposure groups, the values were 82,7±2,989 and 99,1±3,903, respectively. n=10; p<0.05). As for memory consolidation, for performing 5-CSRTT after 30 day of EMF action we received significant differences in the number of correctly performed tasks (sham control and EMF exposure groups, the values were 0,7±0,1528 and 0,2±0,1333, respectively; p<0.05) and results in prematurity activities (in sham control and EMF exposure groups 0,5 ± 0,2236 and 1,5 ± 0,3416, p<0.05) and in accuracy (in sham control and EMF exposure groups 0,5 ± 0,1667and 1,4 ± 0,2667, p<0.05). In our study It was found, that EMF affected as well as on learning and memory recall process, but with more advanced research reason, that clinically gave a picture of memory loss mainly related to decreased attention and concentration, which is also confirmed by the increase in concentration of hormone ghrelin, participating in memory processes, under influence of the household frequency EMF.


Ghrelin; memory; electromagnetic field; behavior;

Full Text:



Ackermann S, Hartmann F, Papassotiropoulos A, de Quervain DJF, Rasch B. Associations between basal cortisol levels and memory retrieval in healthy young individuals. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 2013; 25(11): 1896–907.

Adhikari A, Topiwala MA, Gordon JA. Synchronized activity between the ventral hippocampus and the medial prefrontal cortex during anxiety. Neuron 2010; 65: 257–69.

Andrews ZB. The extra-hypothalamic actions of ghrelin on neuronal function. Trends in Neurosciences 2011;34 (1): 31-40.

Bali A, Singh Jaggi A. An integrative review on role and mechanisms of ghrelin in stress, anxiety and depression. Current Drug Targets 2016;17(5): 495-507.

Bhatt CR, Benke G, Smith CL, Redmayne M, Dimitriadis C, Dalecki A, Macleod S, Sim MR, Croft RJ, Wolfe R, Kaufman J. Use of mobile and cordless phones and change in cognitive function: a prospective cohort analysis of Australian primary school children. Environmental Health 2017; 16(1): 62.

Bruel-Jungerman E, Davis S, Laroche S. Brain plasticity mechanisms and memory: a party of four. The Neuroscientist 2007; 13(5): 492-505.

Carlini VP, Ghersi M, Schiöth HB, de Barioglio SR. Ghrelin and memory: differential effects on acquisition and retrieval. Peptides 2010; 31(6): 1190-93.

Celikozlu SD, Ozyurt MS, Cimbiz A, Yardimoglu MY, Cayci MK, Ozay Y. The effects of long-term exposure of magnetic field via 900-MHz GSM radiation on some biochemical parameters and brain histology in rats. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 2012; 31(4): 344-55.

Dondoladze K, Nikolaishvili M, Zurabashvili D. Effects of High-Frequency Electromagnetic Field on GhrelinS Quantitative Changes and Animal Memory. European Scientific Journal, ESJ 2016; 12(33): 17-25.

Fragopoulou AF, Miltiadous P, Stamatakis A, Stylianopoulou F, Koussoulakos SL, Margaritis LH. Whole body exposure with GSM 900 MHz affects spatial memory in mice. Pathophysiology 2010; 17(3): 179-87.

Ghersi MS, Gabach LA, Buteler F, Vilcaes AA, Schiöth HB, Perez MF, de Barioglio SR. Ghrelin increases memory consolidation through hippocampal mechanisms dependent on glutamate release and NR2B-subunits of the NMDA receptor. Psychopharmacology 2015; 232(10): 1843-57.

Giraldi FP, Bucciarelli LG, Saccani A, Scacchi M, Pesce S, Losa M, Cavagnini F. Ghrelin Stimulates Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone (ACTH) Secretion by Human ACTH‐Secreting Pituitary Adenomas In Vitro. Journal of Neuroendocrinology 2007; 19(3): 208-12.

Grassi C, D’Ascenzo M, Torsello A, Martinotti G, Wolf F, Cittadini A, Azzena GB. Effects of 50 Hz electromagnetic fields on voltage-gated Ca2+ channels and their role in modulation of neuroendocrine cell proliferation and death. Cell Calcium 2004; 35(4): 307-15.

Gray JA, McNaughton N The neuropsychology of anxiety. Ed 2. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Haarala C, Björnberg L, Ek M, Laine M, Revonsuo A, Koivisto M, Hämäläinen H. Effect of a 902 MHz electromagnetic field emitted by mobile phones on human cognitive function: A replication study. Bioelectromagnetics 2003; 24(4): 283-88.

Humby T, Wilkinson L, Dawson G. Assaying aspects of attention and impulse control in mice using the 5‐choice serial reaction time task. Current Protocols in Neuroscience 2005; 31(1): 8-5.

Lewczuk B, Redlarski G, Żak A, Ziółkowska N, Przybylska-Gornowicz B, Krawczuk M. Influence of electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields on the circadian system: current stage of knowledge. BioMed Research İnternational 2014;2014:169459.

Li E, Chung H, Kim Y, Kim DH, Ryu JH, Sato T, Kojima M, Park S. Ghrelin directly stimulates adult hippocampal neurogenesis: implications for learning and memory. Endocrine Journal 2013; 60(6): 781-89.

McGregor DB. Depression and Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields. Etudes et recherches. 2002; 2 R-301

Hong ME, Yoon KH, Jung YY, Lee TJ, Park ES, Sohn UD, Jeong JH. Influence of exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic field on neuroendocrine cells and hormones in stomach of rats. The Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology 2011; 15(3): 137-42.

Müller TD, Nogueiras R, Andermann ML, Andrews ZB, Anker SD, Argente J, Batterham RL, Benoit SC, Bowers CY, Broglio F, Casanueva FF. Ghrelin. Molecular Metabolism 2015; 4(6): 437-60.

Reyes-Guerrero G, Vázquez-García M, Elias-Viñas D, Donatti-Albarrán OA, Guevara-Guzmán R. Effects of 17 b-estradiol and extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields on social recognition memory in female rats: A possible interaction?. Brain Research 2006; 1095(1): 131-38.

Sage C, Burgio E. Electromagnetic fields, pulsed radiofrequency radiation, and epigenetics: How wireless technologies may affect childhood development. Child Development 2018; 89(1): 129-36.

Schoeni A, Roser K, Röösli M. Memory performance, wireless communication and exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields: A prospective cohort study in adolescents. Environment international 2015; 85:3 43-51.

Seyednoiir CR. Effects of Exposure to Cellular Phones 950 MHZ Electromagnetic Fields on Progesterone, Cortisol and Glucose Level in Female Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) 1Reza Seyednour and 2Vahid Chekaniazar. Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 2011; 6(11): 1084-88.

Templer VL, Hampton RR. Episodic memory in nonhuman animals. Current Biology 2013; 23(17): R801-06.

Trimmel M, Schweiger E. Effects of an ELF (50 Hz, 1 mT) electromagnetic field (EMF) on concentration in visual attention, perception and memory including effects of EMF sensitivity. Toxicology Letters 1998; 96: 377-82.

Van Wijngaarden E, Savitz DA, Kleckner RC, Cai J, Loomis D. Exposure to electromagnetic fields and suicide among electric utility workers: a nested case-control study. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2000; 57(4): 258-63.

Vázquez-Garcıa M, Elı́as-Viñas D, Reyes-Guerrero G, Domınguez-González A, Verdugo-Dı́az L, Guevara-Guzmán R. Exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields improves social recognition in male rats. Physiology & Behavior 2004; 82(4): 685-90.

Zurabashvili DZ, Nikolaishvili MI, Mindiashvili N, Zazashvili NI, Chichakua NA. The influence of electromagnetic field on active avoidance reaction, biogenic amines and amino acids in brain of rats in spite of backround of food-stuff addition seratonus. Georgian Medical News 2010 (187): 61-65.

Supporting Agencies

| NeuroScience + QuantumPhysics> NeuroQuantology :: Copyright 2001-2019