DOI: 10.14704/nq.2018.16.1.1171

On the Functional Recovery Mechanism of the Cerebral Nervous System in Diabetic State under the Combination Effect of Exercise and Medication

Wei Guo


This paper studies the effects of moderate exercise and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on the recovery of mitochondrial injuries in the cerebral nervous system under diabetic state through experiment, and analyses the improvement mechanism of mitochondria in energy synthesis, biosynthesis, anti-oxidation, integration and division under the combination of exercise and EGCG medication, hoping to provide some theoretical reference for the protection of cerebral nervous system under diabetic state. The study concludes that diabetes has great impacts on the normal functioning of mitochondria and that its energy synthesis and biosynthesis are controlled by a variety of enzymes. When a rat has diabetes, the protein levels of NRF1, NRF2, TFAM and HO1 in mitochondria are significantly decreased, and the pathways of SIRT1 and PGC-1α proteins are also reduced accordingly. After diabetic rats were treated with the combination of exercise and EGCG for 3 months, the pathways of SIRT1 and PGC-1α proteins were effectively increased, the energy synthesis and biosynthesis of mitochondria were enhanced, and the activity of related enzymes was also improved. In this way, the cerebral nervous system diseases of the rats were mitigated. The combination of exercise and EGCG has better effect than either of them alone. The fusion protein expression in diabetic rats decreased significantly compared with that in normal rats, whereas the split protein expression significantly increased in diabetic rats compared with normal rats, indicating that with diabetes, the division and fusion of mitochondria are unstable. Treating diabetes with both exercise and EGCG medication can effectively improve the expression of fusion protein and reduce the level of split protein. Compared with those in the normal group, the autophagy protein levels in diabetic rats were significantly decreased while the expression of Parkin protein increased. The combination of exercise and EGCG can enhance the autophagic ability of mitochondria, thereby changing the ischemic injury of the cerebral nervous system. The EGCG medication can obviously enhance the activity of related enzymes in mitochondria and promote the metabolism of mitochondria.


Diabetes, Cerebral Nervous System Injury, Functional Recovery of Mitochondria, Exercise, EGCG

Full Text:



Angelis KD, Irigoyen MC, Morris M. Diabetes and cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction: application of animal models. Autonomic Neuroscience Basic & Clinical 2009; 145 (1): 3-10.

Balducci S, Iacobellis G, Parisi L, Di BN, Calandriello E, Leonetti F. Exercise training can modify the natural history of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Journal of Diabetes & Its Complications 2006; 20(4): 216-23.

Bittel DC, Bittel AJ, Tuttle LJ, Hastings MK, Commean PK, Mueller MJ. Adipose tissue content, muscle performance and physical function in obese adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus and peripheral neuropathy. Journal of Diabetes & Its Complications 2015; 29(2): 250-57.

Chamnan P, Simmons RK, Forouhi NG, Luben RN, Khaw KT, Wareham NJ, Griffin SJ. Incidence of type 2 diabetes using proposed hba1c diagnostic criteria in the European prospective investigation of cancer–norfolk cohort. Diabetes Care 2011; 34(4): 950-56.

Chen YW, Li YT, Chen YC, Li ZY, Hung CH. Exercise training attenuates neuropathic pain and cytokine expression after chronic constriction injury of rat sciatic nerve. Anesthesia & Analgesia 2012; 114(6): 1330-37.

Colberg SR, Sigal RJ, Fernhall B, Regensteiner JG, Blissmer BJ, Rubin RR. Exercise and type 2 diabetes: the american college of sports medicine and the american diabetes association: joint position statement executive summary. Diabetes Care 2010; 42(12): 2692-96.

Dixit S, Maiya AG, Shastry BA. Effect of aerobic exercise on peripheral nerve functions of population with diabetic peripheral neuropathy in type 2 diabetes: a single blind, parallel group randomized controlled trial. Journal of Diabetes & Its Complications 2014; 28(3): 332-39.

Erken HA, Erken G, Çolak R, Genç O. Exercise and DHA prevent the negative effects of hypoxia on EEG and nerve conduction velocity. High Altitude Medicine & Biology 2013;14(4):360-66.

Hung JW, Liou CW, Wang PW, Yeh SH, Lin LW, Lo SK. Effect of 12-week tai chi chuan exercise on peripheral nerve modulation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine 2009; 41(11):924-29.

Khaodhiar L, Cummings S, Apovian CM. Treating diabetes and prediabetes by focusing on obesity management. Curr Diab Rep 2009; 9 (5):348-54.

Kim B, Backus C, Oh S, Hayes JM, Feldman EL. Increased tau phosphorylation and cleavage in mouse models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Endocrinology 2009; 150(12): 5294-5301.

Kluding PM, Pasnoor M, Singh R, D'Silva LJ, Yoo M, Billinger SA. Safety of aerobic exercise in people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy: single-group clinical trial. Physical Therapy 2015; 95(2):223-34.

Kruse RL, Lemaster JW, Madsen RW. Fall and balance outcomes after an intervention to promote leg strength, balance, and walking in people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy: feet first randomized controlled trial. Physical Therapy 2010; 90(11):1568-79.

Kwon HR, Min KW, Ahn HJ, Seok HG, Lee JH, Gang SP. Effects of aerobic exercise vs. resistance training on endothelial function in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus 2011;35 (4): 364-73.

Mcnay EC, Recknagel AK. Brain insulin signaling: a key component of cognitive processes and a potential basis for cognitive impairment in type 2 diabetes. Neurobiology of Learning & Memory 2011; 96(3):432-42.

Otterman NM, van Schie CH, Van dSM, van Bon AC, Buschwestbroek TE, Nollet F. An exercise programme for patients with diabetic complications: a study on feasibility and preliminary effectiveness. Diabetic Medicine 2011; 28(2):212-17.

Popbusui R, Lu J, Brooks MM, Albert S, Althouse AD, Escobedo J. Impact of glycemic control strategies on the progression of diabetic peripheral neuropathy in the bypass angioplasty revascularization investigation 2 diabetes (bari 2d) cohort. Diabetes Care 2013; 36(10): 3208-15.

Rathmann W, Giani G. Global prevalence of diabetes: estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030. Diabetes Care 2004; 27(5):1047-53.

Rönnemaa E, Zethelius B, Sundelöf J, Sundström J, Degermangunnarsson M, Berne C. Impaired insulin secretion increases the risk of alzheimer disease. Neurology 2008; 71(14):1065-71.

Sakaguchi M, Fukuda S, Shimada K, Izumi Y, Izumiya Y, Nakamura Y. Preliminary observations of passive exercise using whole body periodic acceleration on coronary microcirculation and glucose tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes. Journal of Cardiology 2012; 60 (4):283-87.

Sigal RJ, Kenny GP, Boulé NG, Wells GA, Prud'Homme D, Fortier M. Effects of aerobic training, resistance training, or both on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes: a randomized trial. Annals of Internal Medicine 2007;147 (6):357-69.

Tuttle LJ, Sinacore DR, Cade WT, Mueller MJ. Lower physical activity is associated with higher intermuscular adipose tissue in people with type 2 diabetes and peripheral neuropathy. Physical Therapy 2011; 91(6):923-30.

Udina E, Cobianchi S, Allodi I, Navarro X. Effects of activity-dependent strategies on regeneration and plasticity after peripheral nerve injuries. Annals of Anatomy 2011;193 (4):347-53.

Umpierre D, Ribeiro PA, Kramer CK, Leitão CB, Zucatti AT, Azevedo MJ. Physical activity advice only or structured exercise training and association with hba1c levels in type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 2011; 305(17):1790-99.

Unick JL, Beavers D, Jakicic JM, Kitabchi AE, Knowler WC, Wadden TA. Effectiveness of lifestyle interventions for individuals with severe obesity and type 2 diabetes: Diabetes Care 2011;34(10):2152-57.

Visser AD, Hemming A, Yang C, Zaver S, Dhaliwal R, Jawed Z. The adjuvant effect of hypertension upon diabetic peripheral neuropathy in experimental type 2 diabetes. Neurobiology of Disease 2014; 62(2):18-30.

Yardley JE, Kenny GP, Perkins BA, Riddell MC, Balaa N, Malcolm J.. Resistance versus aerobic exercise: acute effects on glycemia in type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2013;36(3):537-42.

Zimmet P, Alberti KG, Shaw J. Global and societal implications of the diabetes epidemic. Nature 2001;414(6865):782-87.

Supporting Agencies

| NeuroScience + QuantumPhysics> NeuroQuantology :: Copyright 2001-2017