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Home > Archives > Volume 20, No 11 (2022) > Article

DOI: 10.14704/NQ.2022.20.11.NQ66021

Prevalence and determinants of hypertension and pre-hypertension among urban adolescent school students of the age group 13-17 years – A pilot study

Autkar Pusdekar Y, Dixit JV, Badhoniya N

Abstract

Introduction: Hypertension among young children is receiving attention in the developed countries. Though it is increasingly becoming common in the developing countries, there are a very few studies focused on this rising epidemic. The emerging risk factors for raised blood pressure (BP) in this age group like rising levels of stress, unidentified mental health problems such as stress and anxiety remain unexplored. This study aims to assess the prevalence and determinants of hypertension and pre-hypertension among urban school students of age group 13-17 years. Methodology: It was an observational study. The present analysis consists of the findings for the pilot study to assess feasibility and testing of the study tools for a larger study. An arbitrary sample of 200 students from two urban schools was assessed for the study. Hypertension was defined as mean blood pressure >95th but < 99th percentile and pre-hypertension as > 90th but less than 95th percentile for the age, gender and height. The risk factors taken into consideration were sociodemographic variables, Body Mass Index (BMI), anthropometry, dietary habits, physical activity and perceived stress. Results: The mean blood pressure levels were 113 ± 16 mm/hg for systolic blood pressure (SBP) levels and 73 ± 12 mm/hg for diastolic blood pressure (DBP) levels. The prevalence of hypertension was 7.0% and that of pre-hypertension was 12.5% among the students of 13-17 years age group. The factors that significantly contributed to pre-hypertension and hypertension in this population were - higher age > 16 years (Risk ratios RR; (95% Confidence Interval (CI)) – (1.3 (1.0-1.4)), family history of hypertension 1.4 (1.1, 1.6), being overweight/obese (2.56 (2.12, 3.32)), additional salt consumption (1.72 (1.5, 1.9)), junk food consumption (1.4 (1.23, 1.56)), poor physical activity (1.3 (1.1, 1.5)), higher screen time (1.3 (1.12, 1.5)) and frequency of perceived stress episodes >5/week (2.3 (2.1, 2.68)). Conclusion: It is seen thatthe adolescents are exhibiting an increasing susceptibility to the development of lifestyle related disorders. Detailed investigation of the emergent risk factors on a wider scale is needed among this age group.

Keywords

adolescent hypertension pre-hypertension perceived stress overweight obesity physical inactivity

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