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Home > Archives > Volume 20, No 8 (2022) > Article

DOI: 10.14704/nq.2022.20.8.NQ44759

Comparative anti-inflammatory effects of azithromycin, clarithromycin and roxithromycin using animal models of inflammation in Wistar rats

Mahesh M.Bharambe, Vandana M. Thorat, Somnath M.Matule

Abstract

Background: The anti-inflammatory effect of macrolideshas led the way to establish a platform for their exploratory use in asthma as well as other various inflammatory and infective airway conditions. This has been reported in few clinical, in vitro and animal studies. Aims & Objective: To assess the anti-inflammatory activity of azithromycin, clarithromycin and roxithromycin in acute and sub-acute models of inflammation in experimental Wistar rats and to compare their activities with the control group and standard drug aspirin. Materials and Methods: This study was implemented after the approval from animal ethics committee. Animals were divided into five groups each for acute and sub-acute model of inflammation. The control group were administered (4ml/kgsuspension) of 1% gum acacia and the test groups were administered azithromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin (20mg/kg each) and aspirin(200mg/kg). In acute model (Carrageenan induced rat paw edema), using a mercury plethysmograph,the rat paw volume was measured at regular time intervals and then we estimated the percentage inhibition of edema. In model of sub-acute inflammation (Granuloma induced by foreign body), we implanted two sterile cotton pellets of 10 mg each subcutaneously in bilateral axillae of rats. The treatment was initiated onday 1 of pellet implantation and it was repeated once daily till day 10. The rats were sacrificed on day 11 and then we calculated mean dry weight of cotton pellets covered with granuloma for various groups. Results: Acute model: This study clearly shows the anti-inflammatory potential of azithromycin, clarithromycin and roxithromycinwhen compared with the control group. However, the antiinflammatory activity of azithromycin and aspirin was comparable to each other at 5-hour interval whereasthe anti-inflammatory activity of clarithromycin and aspirin was comparable to each other at4and 5-hour interval. Roxithromycin activity appeared to be inferior when compared with aspirin. Sub-acute model: Onlyazithromycin showed significant anti-inflammatory activity when compared with the control group and its activity was also comparable to aspirin. Conclusion:All three selected macrolides possess significant anti-inflammatory activity in comparison to control in acute model of inflammation and only Azithromycin has significant antiinflammatory activity in sub-acute model of inflammation in comparison to control.

Keywords

Macrolide, aspirin, anti-inflammatory, Carrageenan, foreign body granuloma

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