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Home > Archives > Volume 20, No 8 (2022) > Article

DOI: 10.14704/nq.2022.20.8.NQ44392

Do zinc and probiotic double supplementation on cigarette smoke induced inflammation in rat alter Malondealdehyde serum level and INOS (Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase) expression on lung tissue?

Ega Lawalata Yolanda, Udadi Sadhana, Neni Susilaningsih, Endang Mahati, Muflihatul Muniroh


Introduction: Air pollution causes significant morbidity and mortality. One of the most common forms of air pollution is cigarette smoke (CS). Inhalation of CS causes oxidative stress, inflammatory response, generate nitrogen oxides and toxic free radicals.Zinc and probiotic are thought to be antioxidants to fight against free radicals. Aim: Investigate mechanism of action of zinc and probiotic supplementations on the components ofmalondialdehyde(MDA) serum level and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) expression that underlie the effects of CS induced inflammation of Wistar rats. Material and Method: Experimental research posttest only-control group. 30 Wistar rats which met inclusion criteria, randomized into five groups: Group KS: food only, K(-): Smoke, P1: Smoke+Zinc, P2: Smoke+Probiotics and P3: Smoke+zinc+probiotic.Two smoking cigarettes were given twice while supplementation once a day for 7 days, then rats were sacrificed. Blood sampleand lung tissuewere taken for serum MDAtest and immunohistochemistryINOS expression of lung tissue. Result: Highest mean of MDA was P1 (191.20 ± 98.57), lowest mean was K(-)(101.27 ± 42.07). No difference of MDA level between K(-) and treatment groups (p> 0.05). INOS expression showed highest mean in K(-)(37.50 ± 11.40), lowest mean in P3 (17.50 ± 5.24). K(-) against P1, P2 and P3 had significant difference (p<0,05), while no significant difference shownbetween the group treatments. Discussion: Supplementation only zinc or probiotics alone as well as double supplementation had no effect on changes in MDA levels in rats exposed to CS. It may due to brief duration period of treatment, inhibited zinc absorption because of cadmium. Zink and probiotic double supplementation had the lowest INOS expression compared to the other solo treatment groups, indicating zinc and probiotic may have the effect of reducing INOS production especially in lung tissue and airway. Study reported inhibition of iNOS could prevent or improve the manifestations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in rats. This suggests that concurrent administration of zinc and probiotics can be a therapeutic option for COPD patients.


Cigarette Smoke, Zinc, Probiotic, MDA serum level, INOS expression

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