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Home > Archives > Volume 20, No 8 (2022) > Article

DOI: 10.14704/nq.2022.20.8.NQ44233

An Insight about Diagnostic Modalities of Allergic Rhinitis

Mai Alsadek Kamel Alsadek; Elham Samy Selim; Enas AbdelZaher Tantawy; Reham Hassan Anis

Abstract

Background: Allergic rhinitis (AR) is an upper respiratory tract inflammatory disease induced by IgEmediated reaction in atopic subjects. This inflammatory disease occurs as an immune response of the nasal mucosa to airborne allergens and involves nasal congestion, watery nasal discharge, itching of the nose and sneezing. According to the rising pattern of AR incidence as well as its effects on patient’s quality of life and its economic burden on communities, it has been turned into an important public health problem.AR has been classified as seasonal which occurs during certain season or perennial which occurs throughout the year. However, this classification is not applied on all cases. For example, some allergens such as pollen may trigger allergic rhinitis to be seasonal in cooler climates, but perennial in warmer climates. Also, patients with multiple “seasonal” allergies may suffer from allergic symptoms throughout most of the year. AR is often under-recognized owing to poor awareness of patients about the disease, limited access to allergic experts and confounding diagnosis with other clinical conditions such as the common cold. The diagnosis of AR is made by taking a detailed history supported by careful clinical examination. Allergy testing is also important for confirming that underlying allergy is the cause of the rhinitis. Other tests such as nasal allergen challenge, CT scans, evaluation of nasal nitric oxide and ciliary beat frequency, nasal smears and cultures, and analysis of nasal fluid for β-transferrin may be required to include or exclude different forms of rhinitis. Although history taking and physical examination are needed to establish the clinical diagnosis of AR, further diagnostic tests are necessary to confirm that the underlying cause of rhinitis is allergy. Skin testing is considered the primary method for identifying specific allergic triggers of rhinitis.

Keywords

Allergic Rhinitis

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