Home About Login Current Archives Announcements Editorial Board
Submit Now For Authors Call for Submissions Statistics Contact
Home > Archives > Volume 20, No 6 (2022) > Article

DOI: 10.14704/nq.2022.20.6.NQ22006

The Co-integration Test between Employment, Unemployment and the Enrolment of Higher Education and Economic Growth in Malaysia

Asmawi Hashim, Norasibah Abdul Jalil, Norimah Rambeli@Ramli, Emilda Hashim


There are several factors that have a high impact on Malaysia such as human resources, human resources can be regarded as an engine that drives the Malaysian economy. As such, this study looks at the issues that exist in human resources such as employment and unemployment and other issues such as higher education enrolment that contribute to an economy from 1990 to 2020. This study utilised the dynamic approach namely Augmented Dickey-Fuller unit root test and Johansen Juselius Co-integration test. The test results suggest that, all variables are integrated in first different (I(1)). In addition, Johansen Juselius co-integration test suggested that there is no long-term relationship. In conclusion, the relationship between employment, unemployment and higher education enrolment to economic growth is significant. While this study shows no long-term relationship, these variables can be considered important in generating production and economic sector activities that will ultimately lead to growth in the economy of the country. Hence, such aspects need to be emphasized in order for economic growth in line with the growth of the world economy. Hence, the nation's economic growth based on production to a knowledge-based economy is an excellent step in dealing with world economic growth. This is because Malaysians are more towards the increasingly demanding globalization era. However, this situation does not necessarily have a positive effect, but vice versa. Hence, community expertise in various angles needs to be continuously upgraded so that the state of the economy continues to grow from an economic point of view, or other angles.


Employment, Unemployment, High Education Enrolment, Augmented Dickey Fuller, Johansen Juselius Cointegration Test.

Full Text