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Home > Archives > Volume 19, No 12 (2021) > Article

DOI: 10.14704/nq.2021.19.12.NQ21195

Comparison of Controlled Hypotension Due to the Use of Dexmedetomidine, Magnesium Sulfate, and Esmolol in Craniotomy Surgery

Seyed Ali Ahmadi, Behnam Mahmodiyeh, Alireza Farsi and Alireza Kamali


Introduction: Craniotomy includes the temporary removal of bone flap from calvarium to access the intracranial contents, which is usually used to reduce intracranial pressure. Induced or controlled hypotension is a method by which arterial blood pressure is predictably reduced, thus reducing bleeding. Therefore, the present study aimed to compare the dexmedetomidine, magnesium sulfate, and esmolol in controlled hypotension in craniotomy of patients with brain injury. Materials and methods: In this randomized double-blind clinical trial, 45 patients entered into study based on inclusion criteria. All patients were monitored when entering operating room. The questionnaire was completed by all groups, in which PR, MAP (Mean Arterial Pressure), mean bleeding score, mean of received packed cells, controlled hypotension and bradycardia, and survival of patients were recorded. Data were analyzed using spss software version 19, and ANOVA and T-Test were used for statistical significance analysis. Results: The mean age and standard deviations of the three groups of dexmedetomidine, esmolol and magnesium sulfate were 36.78±10.32, 34.47±10.58, and 39.67±11.99 years, respectively. There was no significant difference between the three groups in terms of age, gender, initial heart rate and baseline blood pressure (BP). The MAP and bleeding score (P=0.04 and P=0.0001) was significantly lower in the dexmedetomidine group than in the other two groups. Although the heart rate in the esmolol group was lower than the other two groups, the difference was not significant (P = 0.128). Unlike esmolol and magnesium sulfate groups, GOS did not decrease in the dexmedetomidine group. Conclusion: Comparison of the three groups in controlled hypotension in craniotomy surgery showed that the MAP and bleeding score of dexmedetomidine group was significantly lower than the other two groups, and the GOS didn’t decrease in this group. In general, dexmedetomidine would be a better choice for controlled hypotension in craniotomy.


Dexmedetomidine, Craniotomy Surgery, Controlled Hypotension, Esmolol, Magnesium Sulfate.

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