Home About Login Current Archives Announcements Editorial Board
Submit Now For Authors Call for Submissions Statistics Contact
Home > Archives > Volume 17, No 7 (2019) > Article

DOI: 10.14704/nq.2019.17.7.2700

Some Macroscopic Applications of Georgiev’s Quantum Information Model

Paul Bessler


The goal of this paper is to review a recently published model of quantum neuroscience in which it is proposed that consciousness and free will can be explained by directly identifying consciousness with quantum entanglement and directly identifying free will with the objective reduction of a quantum entangled system. In the second part of the paper, the model is applied to two examples of neurological processing which are difficult to explain in the context of a model that denies the existence of free will, namely task set selection and selective attention. In both cases, it is shown that, if the two possible outcomes of a process are modeled as a single quantum entangled network, the selection of one outcome or the other can be explained by the free will that is inherent in the objective reduction of the network.


consciousness, free will, entanglement

Full Text



Beck F and Eccles JC. Quantum aspects of brain activity and the role of consciousness. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 1992; 89: 11357-11361.

Beck F. Synaptic Quantum Tunnelling in Brain Activity. NeuroQuantology 2008; 6(2): 140-151.

Brefczynski-Lewis J, Lutz A, Schaefer H, Levinson D, Davidson R. Neural correlates of attentional expertise in long-term meditation practitioners. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 2007; 104(27): 11483-11488.

Brewer J, Worhunsky P, Gray J, Tang Y, Weber J, Kobera H. Meditation experience is associated with differences in default mode network activity and connectivity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 2011; 108(50): 20254-20259.

Cheng J, Liu W, Duffney L, Yan Z. SNARE proteins are essential in the potentiation of NMDA receptors by group II metabotropic glutamate receptors. Journal of Physiology 2013; 591(16): 3935–3947.

Ciaramelli E, Grady C, Levine B, Ween J, Moscovitch M. Top-down and bottom-up attention to memory are dissociated in posterior parietal cortex: Neuroimaging and neuropsychological evidence. Journal of Neuroscience 2010; 30(14): 4943-4956.

Eccles JC. Do mental events cause neural events analogously to the probability fields of quantum mechanics? Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 1986; 227(1249): 411-428.

Flohr H. NMDA Receptor-Mediated Computational Processes and Phenomenal Consciousness. Metzinger T (ed.), Neural Correlates of Consciousness. MIT Press, 2000: 245-258.

Flohr H. Unconsciousness. Best Practice & Research Clinical Anaesthesiology 2006; 20(1): 11-22.

Garrison K, Zeffiro T, Scheinost D, Constable R, Brewer J. Meditation leads to reduced default mode network activity beyond an active task. Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral Neuroscience 2015; 15(3): 712-720.

Georgiev D. Quantum Information and Consciousness – A Gentle Introduction. CRC Press, 2018.

Gu Y and Huganir L. Identification of the SNARE complex mediating the exocytosis of NMDA receptors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 2016; 113(43): 12280-12285.

Haggard P. Human volition: towards a neuroscience of will. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 2008; 9: 934-946.

Hebb D. A neuropsychological theory. Koch S (ed.), Psychology: A Study of a Science (1). McGraw-Hill, 1959.

Hebb D. The Organization of Behavior; a neuropsychological theory. Wiley, 1949.

Hussain S, Ringsevjen H, Egbenya D, Skjervold T, Davanger S. SNARE Protein Syntaxin-1 Colocalizes Closely with NMDA Receptor Subunit NR2B in Postsynaptic Spines in the Hippocampus. Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience 2016; 9: 10.

James W. The Principles of Psychology. Holt, 1890.

Kabat-Zinn J. Mindfulness-based interventions in context: Past, present, and future. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice 2003; 10: 144–156.

Katsuki F and Constantinidis C. Bottom-up and top-down attention: different processes and overlapping neural systems. Neuroscientist 2014; 20(5): 509-521.

Libet B. Do we have free will? Journal of Consciousness Studies 1999; 6(8-9): 47-57.

Mak LE, Minuzzi L, MacQueen G, Hall G, Kennedy SH, Milev R. The Default Mode Network in Healthy Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Brain Connectivity 2017; 7(1): 25-33.

Moore A, Gruber T, Derose J, Malinowski P. Regular, brief mindfulness meditation practice improves electrophysiological markers of attentional control. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 2012; 6(18): 1-15.

Raichle M, MacLeod A, Snyder A, Powers W, Gusnard D, Shulman D. A default mode of brain function. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 2001; 98(2): 676-682.

Schwartz J and Begley S. The Mind and the Brain: Neuroplasticity and the Power of Mental Force. Harper Collins, 2002.