Home About Login Current Archives Announcements Editorial Board
Submit Now For Authors Call for Submissions Statistics Contact
Home > Archives > Volume 17, No 8 (2019) > Article

DOI: 10.14704/nq.2019.17.8.2019

Geometric Meditation-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Case Study

Fatemeh Torkamani, Farshad Nazaraghaie, Mohammad Nami


Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), characterized by unwanted and distressing intrusive thoughts, images, urges, doubts and ideas or sensations and repetitive mental or behavioral acts, which is regarded as an overwhelming mental disorder. Over the past few years, several studies have indicated how mindfulness-based interventions may be effectively used to remediate OCD symptoms based on which such methods are endorsed as effective complementary or alternative options to remediate OCD. The present pilot investigation assessed the effectiveness of Geometric Meditation-based Cognitive Behavior Therapy (GM-CBT) as a novel integrated approach to help OCD symptoms. Accordingly, an eight-week treatment program (90 minute sessions per week) in a single case of interactable OCD was found to result in a significant reduction in OCD symptoms, anxiety and depression as well as increased mindfulness skills and subsequent secondary outcomes. A three-month post treatment follow up suggested long-lasting beneficial effects. Such a pilot model may receive further endorsement as a holistic CBT approach for OCD.


Geometric Meditation-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Case Study

Full Text



Abramowitz JS, Jacoby RJ. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in the DSM-5. Clinical Psychology Science and Practice 2014; 21: 221–235.

Abramowitz JS, Deacon BJ, Whiteside SP. Exposure therapy for anxiety: Principles and practice. New York, Guilford Press, 2012. ISBN 9781462509690

Abramowitz JS. Psychological Treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 2006; 51: 407-416.

Aderka IM, Anholt GE, van Balkom AJLM, Smit JH, Hermesh H, Hofmann SG, et al. Differences between early and late drop-outs from treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 2011; 25: 918–23.

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.) 2013. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.

Amir N, Freshman M, Ramsey B, Neary E, Brigidi B. Thought-action fusion in obsessive compulsive disorder. Behav Res Ther. 2001; 39(7): 765-76.

Baer R. Mindfulness-based treatment approaches: Clinician’s guide to evidence base and applications. San Diego, CA: Elsevier Academic Press; 2006.

Baer RA, Smith GT, Hopkins J, Krietemeyer J, Toney L. Using self -report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. 2006; Assessment, 13, 27-45.

Bluett EJ, Homan KJ, Morrison KL, Levin ME, Twohig MP. Acceptance commitment therapy for anxiety and OCD spectrum disorders: an empirical review. Journal of Anxiety Disorder 2014; 28: 6.

Butcher JN, Dahlstrom WG, Graham JR, Tellegen A, Kaemmer B. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. 2nd ed. University of Minnesota Press; Minneapolis: 1989. MMPI-2.

Coles ME, Pinto A, Mancebo MC, Rasmussen SA, Eisen JL. OCD with comorbid OCPD: a subtype of OCD? Journal of Psychiatric Research. 2008; 42(4): 289-296.

Dehghani M, Ashori A, Habibi Askarabad M, Khatibi M. Standardization and Psychometric Properties ofMinesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2). Journal of Psychology 2010; 14: 299-318.

Dehghani M, Esmaili N, Akbar F, Hasanvand, M, Nikmanesh E. Assess the psychometric properties and factor structure of five facet mindfulness. Thought and Behavior 2015; 9.

Delavar A, Gharraee B, Chegini M. Psychometric characteristics Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory – 3. The new Journal of Psychological Studies 2012; 29.

Didonna F, Lanfredi M, Xodo E, Ferrari C, Rossi R, Pedrini L. Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Pilot Study. J Psychiatric Pract 2019; 25(2): 156-170.

Esfahani S, Motaghipour Y, Kamkari K, Zahiredin A, Janbozorgi M. Reliability and Validity of the Persian Version of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS). (English). Iranian Journal of Psychiatry & Clinical Psychology 2012; 17(4): 297-303.

Farris S, McLean C, Van Meter P, Simpson H, Foa E. Treatment Response, Symptom Remission and Wellness in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 2013; 74(7): 685–690.

Foa EB, Liebowitz MR, Kozak MJ, Davies S, Campeas R, Franklin ME, Huppert JD, Kjernisted K, Rowan V, Schmidt AB, Simpson HB, Tu X: Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of exposure and ritual prevention, clomipramine, and their combination in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Am J Psychiatry 2005, 162:151–161.

Garyfallos G, Katsigiannopoulos K, Adamopoulou A, Papazisis G, Karastergiou A, Bozikas VP. Comorbidity of obsessive-compulsive disorder with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder: Does it imply a specific subtype of obsessive-compulsive disorder? Psychiatry Research 2010; 177(1-2): 156-60.

Gasnier M, Pelissolo A, Bondolfi G, Pelissolo S, Tomba M, Mallet L, N'diaye K. Mindfulness-based interventions in obsessive-compulsive disorder: Mechanisms of action and presentation of a pilot study. Encephale. 2016; 43(6): 594-599.

Goodman WK, Price LH, Rasmussen SA, Mazure C, Fleischmann RL, Hill CL, Heninger GR, Charney DS: The Yale-Brown obsessive-compulsive scale: I. Development, use, and reliability. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1989; 46:1006.

Hayes AM, Feldman G. Clarifying the construct of mindfulness in the context of emotion regulation and the process of change in therapy. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice 2004; 11: 255–262.

Hertenstein E, Rose N, Voderholzer U, Heidenreich T, Nissen Ch, Thiel N, Herbst N, and Külz A.K. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in obsessive-compulsive disorder – A qualitative study on patient’s experiences. BMC Psychiatry 2012; 12: 185.

Key BL, Rowa K, Bieling P, McCabe R, Pawluk EJ. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy as an augmentation treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Clin Psychol Psychother 2017; 24(5): 1109-1120

Kozak MJ, Liebowitz MR, Foa EB. Cognitive behaviour therapy and pharmacotherapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder: The NIMH-sponsored collaborative study. In W. Goodman, M. Rudorfer, & J. Maser (Eds.), Obsessive-compulsive disorder: Contemporary issues in treatment 2000; pp. 501–530. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Külz A, Barton B, Voderholzer U. Third Wave Therapies of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: A Reasonable Add-on Therapy for CBT? State of the Art. Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol. 2016; 66(3-4): 106-11.

Külz AK, Rose N. Mindfulness based cognitive therapy (MBCT) in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder--an adaptation of the original program. Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol 2014; 64(1): 35-40.

Külz AK, Landmann S, Cludius B, Rose N, Heidenreich T, et al. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and residual symptoms after cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT): a randomized controlled trial. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2019; 269(2): 223-233.

Kurtz R. Body Centered Psychotherapy: The Hakomi method: The integrated use of mindfulness, nonviolence, and the body. Mendocino, CA: Life Rhythm Publication; 1990.

Millon T, Millon C, Davis R. Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory: MCMI-III. Pearson Assessments; Upper Saddle River, NJ: 1997.

Morabbi M., Towfighi Z. Efficacy of mindfulness therapy based on F.G. Meditation. First congress of third wave behavior therapy 2015; Kashan Medical University, Iran.

Najmi S, Kuckertz JM, Amir N. Automatic avoidance tendencies in individuals with contamination-related obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Behav Res Ther. 2010; 48: 1058–62.

Nazaraghaie F. Meditation as a Multidisciplinary and Holistic Approach of Meditation. International journal of yoga and allied sciences 2017; 6: 62-68.

Nazaraghaei F (2013) FG Meditation Animation, English version.

Nazaraghaei F. An Introduction to Geometric Somatic Breathing Based Meditation, Geometric Introspective Based Meditation and Mindfulness Based Meditation in Farshad's Geometric Meditation as an Innovative Style of Meditation, First congress of third wave behavior therapy 2015a; Kashan Medical University, Iran.

Nazaraghaei F. Meditation as an objective and rational meditation style adaptable for stress management in contemporary era. Avicenna Journal of Phyto-medicine 2015b; 5: 112-113.

Nazaraghaie F, Torabi-Nami Mohammad, Torkamani F, Kiani B. EEG-guided meditation training through geometrical approach: an interim analysis. Avicenna Journal of Phyto-medicine 2015a; 5: 146.

Nazaraghaie F, Nami M, Torkamani F, Kiani B. Quantitative Electroencephalogram-Informed Geometric Meditation: A Pilot Validation Study. JAMSAT 2017; 3.

Nazaraghaei F, Farrokhi Sh., et al. Assessment of the synergic effects of F.G. Meditation on the pharmaceutical treatment of asthma for women, First congress of third wave behavior therapy 2015b; Kashan Medical University, Iran.

Nestadt G, Samuels J, Riddle MA, Liang KY, Bienvenu OJ, Hoehn-Saric, R, Cullen B. The relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorder and anxiety and affective disorders: Results from the Johns Hopkins OCD Family Study. Psychological Medicine 2001; 31: 481–487.

Neuser NJ. Examining the Factors of mindfulness: A confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Five Facet mindfulness Questionnaire. School of professional psychology paper 2010. 128.

Obsessive Compulsive Cognitions Working Group. Psychometric validation of the obsessive belief questionnaire and interpretation of intrusions inventory-Part 2: factor analyses and testing of a brief version. Behav Res Ther. 2005; 43: 1527–42.

Patel SR, Carmody J, Simpson HB. Adapting Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction for the Treatment of Obsessive-compulsive Disorder: A Case Report. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice 2007; 14: 375–380.

Ruscio AM, Stein DJ, Chiu WT, Kessler RC: The epidemiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Mol Psychiatry 2010; 15:53–63.

Simpson HB, Huppert JD, Petkova E, Foa EB, Liebowitz MR. Response versus remission in obsessive-compulsive disorder. J Clinical Psychiatry 2006; 67:269–276.

Shams G, Karam Qadiri N, Esmaeili TJ, Ebrahim Khani N. The validity and reliability of the Persian Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire - 44, New Cognitive Science 2004; 6(1): 2:23-36.

Shams G, Esmaili Y, Karamghadiri N, Ebrahimhkani N, Yousefi Y, McKay D. Psychometric properties of the Persian language version of Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire (OBQ-44) in Iranian general population. Acta Medica Iranica 2014; 52(1): 66-75.

Sharifi A, Maulvi H, Namdari K. Millon Clinical validity of the questionnaire. Knowledge and Research in Psychology 2006; 34: 38-27.

Whittal ML, Thordarson DS, McLean PD. Treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder: cognitive behavior therapy vs. exposure and response prevention. Behavior Research and Therapy 2005; 43: 1559–1576.