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Home > Archives > Volume 20, No 17 (2022) > Article

DOI: 10.14704/NQ.2022.20.17.NQ88007

Role of Sphingolipid Metabolism Played in Neurodegenerative Disease: A Descriptive Review

Mohit Agrawal, Manmohan Singhal, Hema Chaudhary, Neha Minocha, Shalini kumari, Yash Jasoria

Abstract

Sphingolipid comprise an important group of biomolecules, some of which have been shown to play important roles in the neurodegenerative disease and regulation of many cell functions. Sphingolipid are a ubiquitous membrane lipid present in every cell & found most abundantly in neural tissue. Sphingolipid metabolism alterations in the neurodegenerative disease. It appears that alteration in the gene expression pattern in these disease conditions are biased to manipulate the system in order to result in a particular disease. The pathogenesis of AD is highly linked to Amyloid beta deposition & oxidative stress. We report that alterations in Sphingolipid metabolism during normal brain aging and in the brain of AD patients. In the Parkinson’s disease the enzyme which degrades the glycolipid glucosylceramide (GlcCer) is encoded by a gene known as glucocerebrosidase-1 (GBA1) which is one of the hallmarks in the pathology of PD. In the Huntington Disease, the imbalance in S1P-metabolizing enzymes results in decreased bioavailability of S1P and increased levels of Ceramide species as reported in HD models. Deregulated metabolism of lipids is an important factor of modified activity of brain. Similarly, the altered metabolism of sphingolipids also points towards its crucial role in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. In this review, we provide an overview of Sphingolipid metabolism and synthesis. We focus on the deregulation of Sphingolipid metabolism pathway in neurodegenerative disease like Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington disease and Epilepsy. In the present review, we have highlighted the altered metabolism to neurodegenerative diseases.

Keywords

Neurodegenerative disease, Sphingolipid metabolism, S1PR, Ceramide, S1P, FTY720

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