Kevin Bradley Clark
4229 SE Harney Street, Portland, OR 97206, USA United States
Kevin B. Clark earned his Ph.D. from the Program for Biopsychology of Learning and Memory at Southern Illinois University in 1999. He has held basic and/or clinical research appointments at Oregon State University, Southern Illinois University, and the Max-Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics. Among other professional activities, Dr. Clark has served as member of ten professional societies, referee and associate editor for professional journals, editor of collected volumes, guest editor of journal special issues, and long-time consultant and collaborator to the Research and Development Service at the Veterans Affairs Greater Los Angeles Health Care System. Dr. Clark’s award-winning research and patented inventions improving learning, memory, and recovery from traumatic brain injury through peripheral neuromodulation gained recognition from MacArthur fellow Dr. James McGaugh and other members of the National Academy of Sciences, USA. Later comparative primate studies conducted with systems neuroscientist Dr. Nikos Logothetis focused on Dr. Clark’s interests in the neural basis of learning, memory, perception, and cognition across animal phylogeny. His broader interests in the evolution of intelligent behavior largely began in graduate school while briefly working with molecular and cellular evolutionist Dr. Sidney Fox on protocell models of learning and memory and continue today with his most recent research studying physical aspects of microbial conflict mediation and instigation.
Bioreaction Quantum Computing without Quantum Diffusion
Kevin Bradley Clark
Debate exists over whether or not adherence to quantum statistical mechanics and emulation of quantum information properties are sufficient criteria for biocomputations to be classified as quantum processes. A noteworthy example at the scale of intact life forms making social decisions can be found in “lower” eukaryotes. Ciliates learn to group Ca2+-dependent behavioral strategies into heuristics which they then use to signal mating status after physical contacts from presumed suitors and rivals. The time taken by ciliates to find appropriate strategies stored within behavioral repertoires diminishes with experience. Improvements in strategy search speeds by experts resemble the root-rate performance of Grover’s quantum search algorithm over classical processes. Ciliates putatively implement fast strategy search algorithms by learning to change the reaction kinetics of mechanically activated Ca2+-induced Ca2+ waves that travel through different cellular compartments to preferentially trigger over-learned behavioral sequences. Fire-diffuse-fire models demonstrate wave-conduction velocities most suited for quadratic increases in strategy search speeds are sensitive to limitations imposed by Ca2+ release times and distances between Ca2+ storage sites. These reaction-diffusion computations provide an interesting contrast to physicochemical quantum events described by equations containing quantum diffusion terms, as a modifiable classical diffusion coefficient solely accounts for root-rate processing efficiency. Fast chemical events underlying quantum information processing schemes in live biological systems can thus counter-intuitively exert their effects via thermodynamically vulnerable reaction parameters. The ubiquity and biological importance of intracellular Ca2+-induced Ca2+ cascades across taxa suggests bacteria to mammals might likewise learn to use quantum-level processing when planning and executing behavioral strategies.