DOI: 10.14704/nq.2019.17.3.1813

Investigating A Hypothesis on The Mechanism of Long-Term Memory Storage

Seyed Amir Hossein Batouli, Minoo Sisakhti


Memory is a fundamental cognitive function of the human, and long-term memory (LTM) plays a substantial role in it. Despite all the research, the mechanism of the storage of LTM data in the brain, as well as the brain areas responsible for it, are not clearly identified yet. There is an ancient philosophical idea that the human memory is stored in an extracorporeal space, i.e. the human soul. In this study, using a materialistic approach, we aimed to take one step in investigating the role of human soul in brain functionality by assessing the compliance of this old idea with the available neuroscientific facts. Although with the current knowledge of the human it is not possible to accept nor to deny or examine the existence of soul, we think people in the fields of neuroscience, psychology, or psychiatry should start speaking about “human soul” in their works; belief in soul is nearly as old as the history of human, and one day people should start to scientifically investigate it.


long-term memory, human soul

Full Text:



Addis DR, Moscovitch M, Crawley AP, McAndrews MP. Recollective qualities modulate hippocampal activation during autobiographical memory retrieval. Hippocampus. 2004; 14(6): 752-762.

Albert NB, Robertson EM, Miall RC. The resting human brain and motor learning. Current Biology 2009; 19(12): 1023-1027.

de Almeida L, Idiart M, Lisman JE. Memory retrieval time and memory capacity of the CA3 network: role of gamma frequency oscillations. Learning & Memory 2007; 14(11): 795-806.

Alsmith AJ and Longo MR. Where exactly am I? Self-location judgements distribute between head and torso. Consciousness and cognition 2014; 24: 70-74.

Anderson DP, Harvey AS, Saling MM, Anderson V, Kean M, Abbott DF, Wellard RM, Jackson GD. FMRI lateralization of expressive language in children with cerebral lesions. Epilepsia 2006; 47(6): 998-1008.

Anglin SM. I think, therefore I am? Examining conceptions of the self, soul, and mind. Consciousness and cognition. 2014; 29: 105-116.

Anon. In Plato, as well as in almost all ancient Greek thought, human soul is primarily cognitive and this cognitive function of it distinguishes human beings from animals. Later on, with Christianism, human soul is considered mainly as ethical. Anon, 2006. World Values Survey.

Aquinas T. Summa theologica, tr. Fathers of the English Dominican Province. Burns, Oates & Washbourne, London. 1912.

Atkinson RC and Shiffrin RM. Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes. In Psychology of learning and motivation. Academic Press 1968; 2: 89-195.

Badre D and Wagner AD. Left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and the cognitive control of memory. Neuropsychologia 2007; 45(13): 2883-2901.

Bailey CH and Chen M. Long-term memory in Aplysia modulates the total number of varicosities of single identified sensory neurons. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 1988; 85(7): 2373-1377.

Bailey CH and Chen M. Long-term sensitization in Aplysia increases the number of presynaptic contacts onto the identified gill motor neuron L7. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 1988; 85(23): 9356-9359.

Bailey CH, Chen M. Morphological basis of long-term habituation and sensitization in Aplysia. Science 1983; 220(4592): 91-93.

Bailey CH, Kandel ER. Synaptic and cellular basis of learning. Handbook of neuroscience for the behavioral sciences. John Wiley and Sons, Inc, 2009.

Bailey CH, Kandel ER, Harris KM. Structural components of synaptic plasticity and memory consolidation. Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology 2015; 7(7): a021758.

Baker D. La apertura del tercer ojo, Madrid: Ed. EDAF, S.A, 1985.

Bartol Jr TM, Bromer C, Kinney J, Chirillo MA, Bourne JN, Harris KM, Sejnowski TJ. Nanoconnectomic upper bound on the variability of synaptic plasticity. Elife. 2015; 4: e10778.

Battaglia FP, Benchenane K, Sirota A, Pennartz CM, Wiener SI. The hippocampus: hub of brain network communication for memory. Trends in cognitive sciences 2011; 15(7): 310-318.

Beck F. Synaptic quantum tunnelling in brain activity. NeuroQuantology 2008; 6(2): 140–151.

Beck F and Eccles JC. Quantum aspects of brain activity and the role of consciousness. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1992; 89(23): 11357–11361.

Bergin R. DNA as a basis for acquired long-term memory in neurons. Medical hypotheses. 1998; 50(5): 451-455.

Berhouma M. Beyond the pineal gland assumption: a neuroanatomical appraisal of dualism in Descartes’ philosophy. Clinical neurology and neurosurgery. 2013; 115(9): 1661-1670.

Berry SD and Thompson RF. Prediction of learning rate from the hippocampal electroencephalogram. Science. 1978; 200(4347): 1298-1300.

Berryhill ME, Phuong L, Picasso L, Cabeza R, Olson IR. Parietal lobe and episodic memory: bilateral damage causes impaired free recall of autobiographical memory. Journal of Neuroscience. 2007; 27(52): 14415-14423.

Bertossa F, Besa M, Ferrari R, Ferri F. Point zero: A phenomenological inquiry into the seat of consciousness. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 2008; 107(2): 323-335.

Bliss TV, Lømo T. Long‐lasting potentiation of synaptic transmission in the dentate area of the anaesthetized rabbit following stimulation of the perforant path. The Journal of physiology. 1973; 232(2): 331-356.

Bloom P. Religion is natural. Developmental Science 2007; 10(1): 147–151.

Born J, Rasch B, Gais S. Sleep to remember. The Neuroscientist. 2006; 12(5): 410-424.

Bourguignon E. Possession. Chandler & Sharp Publishers, 1976.

Bourne JN and Harris KM. Nanoscale analysis of structural synaptic plasticity. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 2012; 22(3): 372–382.

Boyer P. And man creates God: religion explained. Basic Books, 2001.

Brady TF, Konkle T, Alvarez GA, Oliva A. Visual long-term memory has a massive storage capacity for object details. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2008; 105(38): 14325-14329.

Brady TF, Konkle T, Alvarez GA. A review of visual memory capacity: Beyond individual items and toward structured representations. Journal of vision. 2011; 11(5): 4.

Bragin A, Jandó G, Nádasdy Z, Hetke J, Wise K, Buzsáki G. Gamma (40-100 Hz) oscillation in the hippocampus of the behaving rat. Journal of Neuroscience 1995; 15(1): 47-60.

Braver TS, Barch DM, Kelley WM, Buckner RL, Cohen NJ, Miezin FM, Snyder AZ, Ollinger JM, Akbudak E, Conturo TE, Petersen SE. Direct comparison of prefrontal cortex regions engaged by working and long-term memory tasks. NeuroImage 2001; 14(1): 48-59.

Breton J and Robertson EM. Flipping the switch: mechanisms that regulate memory consolidation. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 2014; 18(12): 629–634.

Broad CD. The Mind and Its Place in Nature London Kegan Paul. Trench, Trubner & Co, 1925.

Brodziak A. A current model of neural circuitry active in forming mental images. Medical science monitor: international medical journal of experimental and clinical research 2013; 19: 1146-1158.

Burris CT and Bailey K. What lies beyond: Theory and measurement of afterdeath beliefs. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion. 2009; 19(3): 173-186.

Burwell RD, Amaral DG. Cortical afferents of the perirhinal, postrhinal, and entorhinal cortices of the rat. Journal of comparative neurology 1998; 398(2): 179-205.

Buschman TJ, Miller EK. Shifting the spotlight of attention: evidence for discrete computations in cognition. Frontiers in human neuroscience. 2010; 4: 194.

Buzsáki G. Theta oscillations in the hippocampus. Neuron 2002; 33(3): 325-340.

Buzsáki G. Theta rhythm of navigation: link between path integration and landmark navigation, episodic and semantic memory. Hippocampus 2005; 15(7): 827-840.

Ramón y Cajal S. The Croonian lecture. La fine structure des centres nerveux. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. 1894; 55(331-335): 444-468.

Carter C. Science and the near-death experience: How consciousness survives death. Simon and Schuster; Rochester: Inner Traditions, 2010.

Chklovskii DB, Mel BW, Svoboda K. Cortical rewiring and information storage. Nature. 2004; 431(7010): 782-788.

Ciaramelli E, Grady CL, Moscovitch M. Top-down and bottom-up attention to memory: A hypothesis (AtoM) on the role of the posterior parietal cortex in memory retrieval. Neuropsychologia 2008; 46(7): 1828–1851.

Cirelli C, Gutierrez CM, Tononi G. Extensive and divergent effects of sleep and wakefulness on brain gene expression. Neuron. 2004; 41(1): 35-43.

Cirelli C and Tononi G. Is Sleep Essential? PLoS Biology 2008; 6(8): p.e216.

Clarke PG. Neuroscience, quantum indeterminism and the Cartesian soul. Brain and cognition. 2014; 84(1): 109-117. Available at: http: //

Clarke RP. Does longer-term memory storage never become overloaded, and would such overload cause Alzheimer’s disease and other dementia?. Medical hypotheses. 2000; 55(5): 419-428.

Cowan N. The focus of attention as observed in visual working memory tasks: Making sense of competing claims. Neuropsychologia. 2011; 49(6): 1401-1406.

Cowan N. The magical number 4 in short-term memory: A reconsideration of mental storage capacity. Behavioral and brain sciences. 2001; 24(1): 87-114.

Crick F. Memory and molecular turnover. Nature 1984; 312: 101.

Csicsvari J, Jamieson B, Wise KD, Buzsáki G. Mechanisms of gamma oscillations in the hippocampus of the behaving rat. Neuron. 2003; 37(2): 311-322.

Daselaar SM, Rice HJ, Greenberg DL, Cabeza R, LaBar KS, Rubin DC. The spatiotemporal dynamics of autobiographical memory: neural correlates of recall, emotional intensity, and reliving. Cerebral Cortex 2007; 18(1): 217-229.

Day JJ and Sweatt JD. Epigenetic mechanisms in cognition. Neuron 2011; 70(5): 813–829.

Dennett DC. Consciousness explained, Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1991.

Diekelmann S and Born J. The memory function of sleep. Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 2010; 11(2): 114-126

Dingman W, Sporn MB. The incorporation of 8-azaguanine into rat brain RNA and its effect on maze-learning by the rat: An inquiry into the biochemical basis of memory. Journal of Psychiatric Research. 1961; 1(1): 1-1.

Dolcos F, LaBar KS, Cabeza R. Interaction between the amygdala and the medial temporal lobe memory system predicts better memory for emotional events. Neuron 2004; 42(5): 855-63.

Dolcos F and McCarthy G. Brain systems mediating cognitive interference by emotional distraction. Journal of Neuroscience 2006; 26(7): 2072-2079.

Donaldson DI, Petersen SE, Buckner RL. Dissociating memory retrieval processes using fMRI: evidence that priming does not support recognition memory. Neuron. 2001; 31(6): 1047-1059.

Dosher BA, Ma JJ. Output loss or rehearsal loop? Output-time versus pronunciation-time limits in immediate recall for forgetting-matched materials. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 1998; 24(2): 316-335.

Dossey L. Recovering the Soul, San Francisco, CA: Harper San Francisco, 1987.

Draaisma D. Metaphors of memory: A history of ideas about the mind. Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Dudai Y and Morris RGM. Memorable Trends. Neuron 2013; 80(3): 742–750.

Düzel E, Habib R, Schott B, Schoenfeld A, Lobaugh N, McIntosh AR, Scholz M, Heinze HJ. A multivariate, spatiotemporal analysis of electromagnetic time-frequency data of recognition memory. Neuroimage 2003; 18(2): 185-197.

Düzel E, Neufang M, Heinze HJ. The oscillatory dynamics of recognition memory and its relationship to event-related responses. Cerebral Cortex. 2005; 15(12): 1992-2002.

Earl B. The biological function of consciousness. Frontiers in Psychology 2014; 5: 1–18. Available at: http: //

Eccles JC. Evolution of consciousness. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 1992; 89 (16): 7320–7324.

Eccles JC. The human psyche. Berlin, New York: Springer, 1980.

Eccles JC. The neurophysiological basis of mind: the principles of neurophysiology., New York, NY, US: Oxford University Press, 1953.

Eichenbaum H. A cortical–hippocampal system for declarative memory. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 2000; 1(1): 41-50.

Ellenbogen JM, Hulbert JC, Stickgold R, Dinges DF, Thompson-Schill SL. Interfering with theories of sleep and memory: sleep, declarative memory, and associative interference. Current Biology. 2006; 16(13): 1290-1294.

Engert F and Bonhoeffer T. Dendritic spine changes associated with hippocampal long-term synaptic plasticity. Nature 1999; 399(6731): 66–70.

Eschenko O, Mölle M, Born J, Sara SJ. Elevated sleep spindle density after learning or after retrieval in rats. Journal of Neuroscience 2006; 26(50): 12914-12920.

Euston DR, Tatsuno M, McNaughton BL. Fast-forward playback of recent memory sequences in prefrontal cortex during sleep. science. 2007; 318(5853): 1147-1150.

Feeney MC, Roberts WA, Sherry DF. Black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) anticipate future outcomes of foraging choices. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes. 2011; 37(1): 30-40.

Feld GB and Diekelmann S. Sleep smart—optimizing sleep for declarative learning and memory. Frontiers in psychology. 2015; 6: 622.

Felleman DJ and Van DE. Distributed hierarchical processing in the primate cerebral cortex. Cerebral cortex (New York, NY: 1991). 1991; 1(1): 1-47.

Ferrara M, Iaria G, De Gennaro L, Guariglia C, Curcio G, Tempesta D, Bertini M. The role of sleep in the consolidation of route learning in humans: a behavioural study. Brain research bulletin. 2006; 71(1-3): 4-9.

Fingelkurts AA, Fingelkurts AA, Neves CF. Natural world physical, brain operational, and mind phenomenal space–time. Physics of Life Reviews. 2010; 7(2): 195-249.

Fischer S, Hallschmid M, Elsner AL, Born J. Sleep forms memory for finger skills. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2002; 99(18): 11987-11991.

Fishbein W, Kastaniotis C, Chattman D. Paradoxical sleep: Prolonged augmentation following learning. Brain research. 1974; 79(1): 61-75.

Forsdyke DR. Samuel Butler and human long term memory: Is the cupboard bare?. Journal of Theoretical Biology. 2009; 258(1): 156-164.

Forstmann M, Burgmer P, Mussweiler T. “The Mind Is Willing, but the Flesh Is Weak” The Effects of Mind-Body Dualism on Health Behavior. Psychological Science. 2012; 23(10): 1239-1245.

Fosse MJ, Fosse R, Hobson JA, Stickgold RJ. Dreaming and episodic memory: a functional dissociation?. Journal of cognitive neuroscience 2003; 15(1): 1-9.

Freris L. Mind and matter. communicative & integrative Biology. 2013; 6(6): e26658.

Fries P. A mechanism for cognitive dynamics: neuronal communication through neuronal coherence. Trends in cognitive sciences. 2005; 9(10): 474-480.

Fries P, Fernandez G, Jensen O. When neurons form memories. Trends in neurosciences. 2003; 26(3): 123-124.

Fuster JM. Cortex and memory: emergence of a new paradigm. Journal of cognitive neuroscience. 2009; 21(11): 2047-2072.

Gais S, Albouy G, Boly M, Dang-Vu TT, Darsaud A, Desseilles M, Rauchs G, Schabus M, Sterpenich V, Vandewalle G, Maquet P. Sleep transforms the cerebral trace of declarative memories. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2007; 104(47): 18778-18783.

Gallistel CR and King AP. Memory and the Computational Brain, New York: Wiley Blackwell, 2009.

Giese KP and Mizuno K. The roles of protein kinases in learning and memory. Learning and Memory 2013; 20(10 ): 540–552.

Gilboa A, Alain C, Stuss DT, Melo B, Miller S, Moscovitch M. Mechanisms of spontaneous confabulations: a strategic retrieval account. Brain. 2006; 129(6): 1399-1414.

Givens BS, Olton DS. Cholinergic and GABAergic modulation of medial septal area: effect on working memory. Behavioral neuroscience. 1990; 104(6): 849-855.

Gloveli T, Dugladze T, Rotstein HG, Traub RD, Monyer H, Heinemann U, Whittington MA, Kopell NJ. Orthogonal arrangement of rhythm-generating microcircuits in the hippocampus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2005; 102(37): 13295-13300.

Gobet F, Lane PC, Croker S, Cheng PC, Jones G, Oliver I, Pine JM. Chunking mechanisms in human learning. Trends in cognitive sciences. 2001; 5(6): 236-243.

Gonsalves BD, Kahn I, Curran T, Norman KA, Wagner AD. Memory strength and repetition suppression: multimodal imaging of medial temporal cortical contributions to recognition. Neuron. 2005; 47(5): 751-761.

Goutagny R, Jackson J, Williams S. Self-generated theta oscillations in the hippocampus. Nature neuroscience 2009; 12(12): 1491-1493.

Gräff J, Tsai LH. Histone acetylation: molecular mnemonics on the chromatin. Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 2013; 14(2): 97-111.

Gray CM, Singer W. Stimulus-specific neuronal oscillations in orientation columns of cat visual cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 1989; 86(5): 1698-702.

Gray K, Knickman TA, Wegner DM. More dead than dead: Perceptions of persons in the persistent vegetative state. Cognition. 2011 Nov 1; 121(2): 275-280.

Greenberg DL, Rice HJ, Cooper JJ, Cabeza R, Rubin DC, LaBar KS. Co-activation of the amygdala, hippocampus and inferior frontal gyrus during autobiographical memory retrieval. Neuropsychologia. 2005; 43(5): 659-674.

Groch S, Wilhelm I, Diekelmann S, Born J. The role of REM sleep in the processing of emotional memories: evidence from behavior and event-related potentials. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory. 2013; 99: 1-9.

Gruber R, Laviolette R, Deluca P, Monson E, Cornish K, Carrier J. Short sleep duration is associated with poor performance on IQ measures in healthy school-age children. Sleep medicine. 2010; 11(3): 289-294.

Gruber T, Tsivilis D, Giabbiconi CM, Müller MM. Induced electroencephalogram oscillations during source memory: familiarity is reflected in the gamma band, recollection in the theta band. Journal of cognitive neuroscience 2008; 20(6): 1043-1053.

Gulati T, Ramanathan DS, Wong CC, Ganguly K. Reactivation of emergent task-related ensembles during slow-wave sleep after neuroprosthetic learning. Nature neuroscience 2014; 17(8): 1107-1113.

Hadley CB, MacKay DG. Does emotion help or hinder immediate memory? Arousal versus priority-binding mechanisms. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 2006; 32(1): 79-88.

Hari SD. Eccles’s Psychons could be zero-energy tachyons. NeuroQuantology 2008; 6(2): 152-160.

Haught JF. Science and scientism: the importance of a distinction. Zygon®. 2005; 40(2): 363-368.

Hebb DO. The organization of behavior; a neuropsychological theory, New York: Wiley, 1949.

Van Der Helm E, Gujar N, Nishida M, Walker MP. Sleep-dependent facilitation of episodic memory details. PloS one. 2011; 6(11): e27421.

Henson RN and Gagnepain P. Predictive, interactive multiple memory systems. Hippocampus, 2010; 20(11): 1315–1326.

Hirsh IJ and Sherrick Jr CE. Perceived order in different sense modalities. Journal of experimental psychology 1961; 62(5): 423-432.

Holden JM, Greyson B, James B. Veridical perception in near-death experiences. In The Handbook of Near- Death Experiences, Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger (ABC-CLIO), 2009.

Hollingworth A. Failures of retrieval and comparison constrain change detection in natural scenes. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 2003; 29(2): 388-403.

Hopfinger JB, Buonocore MH, Mangun GR. The neural mechanisms of top-down attentional control. Nat Neurosci. 2000; 3(3): 284–291.

Hübener M, Bonhoeffer T. Searching for Engrams. Neuron. 2016; 67(3): 363–371.

Huber R, Born J. Sleep, synaptic connectivity, and hippocampal memory during early development. Trends Cogn Sci. 2014; 18(3): 141–152.

Hufford DJ. Visionary Spiritual Experiences in an Enchanted World. Anthropol Humanism. 2010; 35(2): 142–58.

Hyman JM, Zilli EA, Paley AM, Hasselmo ME. Medial prefrontal cortex cells show dynamic modulation with the hippocampal theta rhythm dependent on behavior. Hippocampus. 2005; 15(6): 739–749.

Isomura Y, Sirota A, Özen S, Montgomery S, Mizuseki K, Henze DA, et al. Integration and Segregation of Activity in Entorhinal-Hippocampal Subregions by Neocortical Slow Oscillations. Neuron. 2016; 52(5): 871–882.

Jannone A. Barbotin E. Aristote. De l’âme. Paris, Fr Belles Lettres. 2002;

Jarome TJ, Helmstetter FJ. The ubiquitin–proteasome system as a critical regulator of synaptic plasticity and long-term memory formation. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2013; 105: 107–116.

Jeneson A, Squire LR. Working memory, long-term memory, and medial temporal lobe function. Learn Mem. 2012; 19(1): 15–25.

Jensen O, Colgin LL. Cross-frequency coupling between neuronal oscillations. Trends Cogn Sci. 2007; 11(7): 267–269.

Jensen O, Lisman JE. Hippocampal sequence-encoding driven by a cortical multi-item working memory buffer. Trends Neurosci. 2005; 28(2): 67–72.

Ji D, Wilson MA. Coordinated memory replay in the visual cortex and hippocampus during sleep. Nat Neurosci. 2007; 10(1): 100–107.

Jordan P. Die Quantenmechanik und die Grundprobleme der Biologie und Psychologie. Naturwissenschaften. 20(45): 815–821.

Josselyn SA. Continuing the search for the engram: examining the mechanism of fear memories. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2010; 35(4): 221–228.

Kali S, Dayan P. Off-line replay maintains declarative memories in a model of hippocampal-neocortical interactions. Nat Neurosci. 2004; 7(3): 286–294.

Kandel ER. The Molecular Biology of Memory Storage: A Dialogue Between Genes and Synapses. Science (80- ). 2001; 294(5544): 1030 LP – 1038.

Karasmanis V. Soul and body in Plato. Int Congr Ser. 2006; 1286: 1–6.

Karni A, Tanne D, Rubenstein BS, Askenasy JJ, Sagi D. Dependence on REM sleep of overnight improvement of a perceptual skill. Science (80- ). 1994; 265(5172): 679 LP – 682.

Kelly EF, Kelly EW, Crabtree A. Irreducible mind: Toward a psychology for the 21st century. Lanham, Md: Jason Aronson; 2006.

Kesner RP, Gilbert PE, Barua LA. The role of the hippocampus in memory for the temporal order of a sequence of odors. Vol. 116, Behavioral Neuroscience. Kesner, Raymond P.: U Utah, Dept of Psychology, 380 South 1530 East, Room 502, Salt Lake City, UT, US, 84112, American Psychological Association; 2002. p. 286–290.

Kim J-H, Udo H, Li H-L, Youn TY, Chen M, Kandel ER, et al. Presynaptic Activation of Silent Synapses and Growth of New Synapses Contribute to Intermediate and Long-Term Facilitation in Aplysia. Neuron. 2003; 40(1): 151–165.

Klausberger T, Magill PJ, Marton LF, Roberts JDB, Cobden PM, Buzsaki G, et al. Brain-state- and cell-type-specific firing of hippocampal interneurons in vivo. Nature. 2003; 421(6925): 844–848.

Klebaur JE, Phillips SB, Kelly TH, Bardo MT. Exposure to novel environmental stimuli decreases amphetamine self-administration in rats. Vol. 9, Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology. Bardo, Michael T.: U Kentucky, Dept of Psychology, 115 Kastle Hall, Lexington, KY, US, 40506-0044, American Psychological Association; 2001. p. 372–379.

Klimesch W, Freunberger R, Sauseng P, Gruber W. A short review of slow phase synchronization and memory: Evidence for control processes in different memory systems? Brain Res. 2008 Oct 15; 1235: 31–44.

Klimesch W, Schack B, Schabus M, Doppelmayr M, Gruber W, Sauseng P. Phase-locked alpha and theta oscillations generate the P1–N1 complex and are related to memory performance. Cogn Brain Res. 2004 May; 19(3): 302–316.

Kocsis B, Bragin A, Buzsáki G. Interdependence of Multiple Theta Generators in the Hippocampus: a Partial Coherence Analysis. J Neurosci. 1999; 19(14): 6200 LP – 6212.

Kompus K, Olsson C-J, Larsson A, Nyberg L. Dynamic switching between semantic and episodic memory systems. Neuropsychologia. 2009; 47(11): 2252–2260.

Kroes MCW, Fernández G. Dynamic neural systems enable adaptive, flexible memories. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2012; 36(7): 1646–1666.

Lai CSW, Franke TF, Gan W-B. Opposite effects of fear conditioning and extinction on dendritic spine remodelling. Nature. 2012; 483(7387): 87–91.

Langston RF, Stevenson CH, Wilson CL, Saunders I, Wood ER. The role of hippocampal subregions in memory for stimulus associations. Behav Brain Res. 2010a Dec 31; 215(2): 275–291.

Lansink CS, Goltstein PM, Lankelma J V, McNaughton BL, Pennartz CMA. Hippocampus Leads Ventral Striatum in Replay of Place-Reward Information. PLOS Biol. 2009; 7(8): e1000173.

Lashley KS. IN SEARCH OF THE ENGRAM. Soc Exp Biol, Symp. 1950; 4: 454–482.

Laszlo E. Introduction to Systems Philosophy: Toward a New Paradigm of Contemporary Thought. Gordon & Breach; 1972a.

Laszlo E. SYSTEMS PHILOSOPHY: A SYMPOSIUM. Metaphilosophy. 1972b; 3(2): 123–141.

Laszlo E. Evolution: The Grand Synthesis. 1987.

Laszlo E. The Self-Actualizing Cosmos: The Akasha Revolution in Science and Human Consciousness. Inner Traditions; 1 edition (March 2, 2014); 2014.

Laszlo E, Peake A. The Immortal Mind: Science and the Continuity of Consciousness beyond the Brain. Rochester, United States: Inner Traditions Bear and Company; 2014.

Latour PL. Evidence of internal clocks in the human operator. Acta Psychol (Amst). 1967; 27: 341–348.

Lawson AE, Weser J. The rejection of nonscientific beliefs about life: Effects of instruction and reasoning skills. J Res Sci Teach. 1990; 27(6): 589–606.

Lech RK, Suchan B. Involvement of the human medial temporal lobe in a visual discrimination task. Behav Brain Res. 2014; 268: 22–30.

Lepage M, Ghaffar O, Nyberg L, Tulving E. Prefrontal cortex and episodic memory retrieval mode. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2000; 97 (1): 506–11.

Lidzba K, Ebner K, Hauser T-K, Wilke M. Complex visual search in children and adolescents: effects of age and performance on fMRI activation. PLoS One. 2013; 8(12): e85168.

Limanowski J, Hecht H. Where Do We Stand on Locating the Self? Psychology. 2011; 2: 312–317.

Van Lommel P. Consciousness beyond life: The science of the near-death experience. New York HarperOne. 2010;

Van Lommel P. Near-death experiences: The experience of the self as real and not as an illusion. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2011; 1234(1): 19–28.

Londei A, D’Ausilio A, Basso D, Sestieri C, Del Gratta C, Romani GL, et al. Brain network for passive word listening as evaluated with ICA and Granger causality. Brain Res Bull. 2007 May 30; 72(4–6): 284–292.

López-Muñoz F, Molina JD, Rubio G, Alamo C. An historical view of the pineal gland and mental disorders. J Clin Neurosci. 2011; 18: 1028–1037.

Luck SJ, Vogel EK. The capacity of visual working memory for features and conjunctions. Nature. 1997; 390(6657): 279–281.

MacDougall D. The soul: Hypothesis concerning soul substance together with experimental evidence of the existence of such substance. Am Med. 1907; April.

MacKay DG, Ahmetzanov M V. Emotion, Memory, and Attention in the Taboo Stroop Paradigm: An Experimental Analogue of Flashbulb Memories. Psychol Sci. 2005; 16 (1): 25–32.

Malinen S, Renvall V, Hari R. Functional parcellation of the human primary somatosensory cortex to natural touch. Eur J Neurosci. 2014; 39(5): 738–43.

Von der Malsburg C, Schneider W. A neural cocktail-party processor. Biol Cybern. 1986; 54(1): 29–40.

Mander BA, Santhanam S, Saletin JM, Walker MP. Wake deterioration and sleep restoration of human learning. Curr Biol. 2011; 21(5): R183–4.

Manns JR, Eichenbaum H. Evolution of the hippocampus. In: Solution of the nervous system: a comprehensive reference. London: Academic Press; 2007. p. 465–89.

Marchetti G. Attention and working memory: two basic mechanisms for constructing temporal experiences. Front Psychol. 2014; 5(August): 1–15.

Maret S, Faraguna U, Nelson AB, Cirelli C, Tononi G. Sleep and waking modulate spine turnover in the adolescent mouse cortex. Nat Neurosci. 2011; 14(11): 1418–20.

Markram H, Lübke J, Frotscher M, Roth A, Sakmann B. Physiology and anatomy of synaptic connections between thick tufted pyramidal neurones in the developing rat neocortex. J Physiol. 1997; 500(Pt 2): 409–40.

Marr D. Simple Memory: A Theory for Archicortex. Philos Trans R Soc London B, Biol Sci. 1971; 262(841): 23 LP – 81.

Martinez JL, Derrick BE. LONG-TERM POTENTIATION AND LEARNING. Annu Rev Psychol. 1996; 47(1): 173–203.

Maxcey AM, Woodman GF. Can we throw information out of visual working memory and does this leave informational residue in long-term memory? Front Psychol. 2014; 5(April): 1–5.

Mayford M, Siegelbaum SA, Kandel ER. Synapses and Memory Storage. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2012; 4(6): a005751.

McClelland JL, McNaughton BL, O’Reilly RC. Why there are complementary learning systems in the hippocampus and neocortex: Insights from the successes and failures of connectionist models of learning and memory. Vol. 102, Psychological Review. US: American Psychological Association; 1995. p. 419–57.

McDermott KB, Buckner RL, Petersen SE, Kelley WM, Sanders AL. Set-and Code-Specific Activation in the Frontal Cortex: An fMRI Study of Encoding and Retrieval of Faces and Words. J Cogn Neurosci. 1999; 11(6): 631–40.

McGaugh JL. Memory--a Century of Consolidation. Science (80- ). 2000; 287(5451): 248 LP – 251.

Melcher D, Piazza M. The Role of Attentional Priority and Saliency in Determining Capacity Limits in Enumeration and Visual Working Memory. PLoS One. 2011; 6(12): e29296.

Meuwese JDI, Scholte HS, Lamme V a F. Latent memory of unattended stimuli reactivated by practice: an FMRI study on the role of consciousness and attention in learning. PLoS One. 2014; 9(3): e90098.


Miller GA. The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information. Psychol Rev. 1956; 63: 81–97.

Mizuseki K, Sirota A, Pastalkova E, Buzsáki G. Theta Oscillations Provide Temporal Windows for  Local Circuit Computation in the Entorhinal-Hippocampal Loop. Neuron. 2016; 64(2): 267–80.

Moczulska KE, Tinter-Thiede J, Peter M, Ushakova L, Wernle T, Bathellier B, et al. Dynamics of dendritic spines in the mouse auditory cortex during memory formation and memory recall. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2013; 110 (45): 18315–20.

Mölle M, Marshall L, Fehm HL, Born J. EEG theta synchronization conjoined with alpha desynchronization indicate intentional encoding. Eur J Neurosci. 2002; 15(5): 923–8.

Montag C, Felten A, Markett S, Fischer L, Winkel K, Cooper A, et al. The Role of the BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism in Individual Differences in Long-Term Memory Capacity. J Mol Neurosci. 2014; 54(4): 796–802.

Monto S. Nested synchrony—a novel cross-scale interaction among neuronal oscillations. Front Physiol. 2012; 3: 384.

Moreira-Almeida A. Implications of spiritual experiences to the understanding of mind– brain relationship. Asian J Psychiatr. 2016; 6(6): 585–589.

Mormann F, Fell J, Axmacher N, Weber B, Lehnertz K, Elger CE, et al. Phase/amplitude reset and theta–gamma interaction in the human medial temporal lobe during a continuous word recognition memory task. Hippocampus. 2005; 15(7): 890–900.

Morris RG, Frey U. Hippocampal synaptic plasticity: role in spatial learning or the automatic recording of attended experience? Philos Trans R Soc B Biol Sci. 1997; 352(1360): 1489–1503.

Moser M-B, Rowland DC, Moser EI. Place Cells, Grid Cells, and Memory. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2015; 7 (2).

Murray EA, Richmond BJ. Role of perirhinal cortex in object perception, memory, and associations. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2001 Apr 1; 11(2): 188–193.

Nadel L, Moscovitch M. Memory consolidation, retrograde amnesia and the hippocampal complex. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 1997; 7(2): 217–227.

Nagel T. What Is It Like to Be a Bat? Philos Rev. 1974; 83(4): 435–450.

Nairne JS. The myth of the encoding±retrieval match. MEMORY. 2002; 10(5/6): 389–395.

Nassi JJ, Callaway EM. Parallel Processing Strategies of the Primate Visual System. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2009; 10(5): 360–372.

Neely JH. Semantic priming effects in visual word recognition: A selective review of current findings and theories. Humphreys DBGW, editor. Basic processes in reading: Visual word recognition. Hillsdale, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc; 1991. p. 264–336.

Nesca M, Koulack D. Recognition memory, sleep and circadian rhythms. Vol. 48, Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology/Revue canadienne de psychologie expérimentale. Canada: Canadian Psychological Association; 1994. p. 359–379.

Von Neumann J. Mathematical foundations of quantum mechanics. Princet Univ Press Princeton, NJ.

Von Neumann J. The Computer and the Brain. New Haven, CT Yale Univ Press. 1958; 63–64.

Niedermeyer E. The normal EEG of the waking adult. In: Electroencephalography: Basic Principles, Clinical Applications and Related Fields. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD; 1999. p. 149–173.

Nyhus E, Curran T. Functional Role of Gamma and Theta Oscillations in Episodic Memory. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2010; 34(7): 1023–1035.

O’Keefe J, Dostrovsky J. The hippocampus as a spatial map. Preliminary evidence from unit activity in the freely-moving rat. Brain Res. 1971; 34(1): 171–175.

O’Neill J, Pleydell-Bouverie B, Dupret D, Csicsvari J. Play it again: reactivation of waking experience and memory. Trends Neurosci. 2010 Nov 23; 33(5): 220–229.

Oberauer K. Access to information in working memory: Exploring the focus of attention. Vol. 28, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. Oberauer, Klaus: Allgemeine Psychologie I, U Potsdam, P.O. Box 60 15 53, Potsdam, Germany, 14415, American Psychological Association; 2002. p. 411–421.

Ofen N. The development of neural correlates for memory formation. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2012; 36(7): 1708–1717.

Osipova D, Takashima A, Oostenveld R, Fernández G, Maris E, Jensen O. Theta and Gamma Oscillations Predict Encoding and Retrieval of Declarative Memory. J Neurosci. 2006; 26(28): 7523 LP – 7531.

De Paola V, Holtmaat A, Knott G, Song S, Wilbrecht L, Caroni P, et al. Cell Type-Specific Structural Plasticity of Axonal Branches and Boutons in the Adult Neocortex. Neuron. 2006; 49(6): 861–875.


Pastalkova E, Serrano P, Pinkhasova D, Wallace E, Fenton AA, Sacktor TC. Storage of Spatial Information by the Maintenance Mechanism of LTP. Science (80- ). 2006; 313(5790): 1141 LP – 1144.

Pende N. Endocrinología. Buenos Aires: Salvat Editores; 1937.

Perakis CR. What About the Soul? Acad Med. 2013; 88(10).

Poppenk J, McIntosh AR, Craik FIM, Moscovitch M. Past Experience Modulates the Neural Mechanisms of Episodic Memory Formation. J Neurosci. 2010; 30(13): 4707 LP – 4716.

Potter M. Conceptual Short Term Memory in Perception and Thought. Vol. 3, Frontiers in Psychology. 2012. p. 113.

Potter MC, Wyble B, Pandav R, Olejarczyk J. Picture Detection in RSVP: Features or Identity? J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform. 2010; 36(6): 1486–1494.

Preston J, Epley N. Science and God: An automatic opposition between ultimate explanations. J Exp Soc Psychol. 2009; 45(1): 238–241.

Preston JL, Ritter RS, Hepler J. Neuroscience and the soul: Competing explanations for the human experience. Cognition. 2013; 127(1): 31–37.

Prince SE, Daselaar SM, Cabeza R. Neural Correlates of Relational Memory: Successful Encoding and Retrieval of Semantic and Perceptual Associations. J Neurosci. 2005; 25(5): 1203 LP – 1210.

Forsdyke D. Long-term memory: scaling of information to brain size. Front Hum Neurosci. 2014; 8(June): 1–4.

Rahm B, Kaiser J, Unterrainer JM, Simon J, Bledowski C. FMRI characterization of visual working memory recognition. Neuroimage. 2014; 90: 413–422.

Ranganath C, Blumenfeld RS. Doubts about double dissociations between short- and long-term memory. Trends Cogn Sci. 2005; 9(8): 374–380.

Ranganath C, Johnson MK, D’Esposito M. Prefrontal activity associated with working memory and episodic long-term memory. Neuropsychologia. 2003; 41(3): 378–89.

Rasch B, Born J. About Sleep’s Role in Memory. Physiol Rev. 2013; 93(2): 681–766.

Rasch B, Büchel C, Gais S, Born J. Odor Cues During Slow-Wave Sleep Prompt Declarative Memory Consolidation. Science (80- ). 2007; 315(5817): 1426 LP – 1429.

Rattenborg NC, Martinez-Gonzalez D. A bird-brain view of episodic memory. Behav Brain Res. 2011; 222(1): 236–45.

Raz N, Levin N. Cortical and white matter mapping in the visual system-more than meets the eye: on the importance of functional imaging to understand visual system pathologies. Front Integr Neurosci. 2014; 8(August): 1–11.

Rempel-Clower NL, Zola SM, Squire LR, Amaral DG. Three Cases of Enduring Memory Impairment after Bilateral Damage Limited to the Hippocampal Formation. J Neurosci. 1996; 16(16): 5233 LP – 5255.

Restivo L, Vetere G, Bontempi B, Ammassari-Teule M. The Formation of Recent and Remote Memory Is Associated with Time-Dependent Formation of Dendritic Spines in the Hippocampus and Anterior Cingulate Cortex. J Neurosci. 2009; 29(25): 8206 LP – 8214.

Ribeiro S, Gervasoni D, Soares ES, Zhou Y, Lin S-C, Pantoja J, et al. Long-Lasting Novelty-Induced Neuronal Reverberation during Slow-Wave Sleep in Multiple Forebrain Areas. PLoS Biol. 2004; 2(1): e24.

Ribot T. Diseases of Memory. London: Kegan Paul Trench & Co.; 1977.

Richert R, Harris P. The Ghost in My Body: Children' s Developing Concept of the Soul. J Cogn Cult. 2006; 6(3): 409–27.

Roediger HL, Guynn MJ. Retrieval processes. In: EL Bjork & RA Bjork (Eds), Memory. New York: Academic Press; 1996. p. 197–236.

Rolls ET, Treves A. Neural Networks and Brain Function. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1998.

Rosenberg T, Gal-Ben-Ari S, Dieterich DC, Kreutz MR, Ziv NE, Gundelfinger ED, et al. The roles of protein expression in synaptic plasticity and memory consolidation. Front Mol Neurosci. 2014; 7(November): 1–14.

Roxin A, Fusi S. Efficient Partitioning of Memory Systems and Its Importance for Memory Consolidation. Beck J, editor. PLoS Comput Biol. 2013 Jul 25; 9(7): e1003146.

Rubin DC. A Basic-Systems Approach to Autobiographical Memory. Curr Dir Psychol Sci. 2005; 14 (2): 79–83.

Ryan L, Nadel L, Keil K, Putnam K, Schnyer D, Trouard T, et al. Hippocampal complex and retrieval of recent and very remote autobiographical memories: Evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging in neurologically intact people. Hippocampus. 2001; 11(6): 707–714.

Ryan TJ, Roy DS, Pignatelli M, Arons A, Tonegawa S. Engram cells retain memory under retrograde amnesia. Science (80- ). 2015; 348(6238): 1007 LP – 1013.

Ryle G. The concept of mind. Oxford, England: Barnes & Noble; 1949.

Saab BJ, Mansuy IM. Neuroepigenetics of memory formation and impairment: The role of microRNAs. Neuropharmacology. 2014; 80: 61–69.

Santini E, Huynh TN, Klann E. Chapter Five - Mechanisms of Translation Control Underlying Long-Lasting Synaptic Plasticity and the Consolidation of Long-Term Memory. In: Science ZUK and ECMBT-P in MB and T, editor. Molecular Basis of Memory. Academic Press; 2014. p. 131–167.

Schacter DL. Forgotten ideas, neglected pioneers: Richard Semon and the story of memory. Philadelphia: Psychology Press; 2001.

Schacter DL, Addis DR, Buckner RL. Remembering the past to imagine the future: the prospective brain. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2007; 8(9): 657–661.

Schroeder CE, Lakatos P. Low-frequency neuronal oscillations as instruments of sensory selection. Trends Neurosci. 2009; 32(1): 10.1016/j.tins.2008.09.012.

Schwartz BL. Memory and the Brain. In: FOUNDATIONS AND APPLICATIONS. SAGE Publications Inc.; 2014. p. 29–58.

Scoville WB, Milner B. LOSS OF RECENT MEMORY AFTER BILATERAL HIPPOCAMPAL LESIONS. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1957; 20(1): 11–21.

Scullin MK, McDaniel MA. Remembering to Execute a Goal: Sleep on It!. Psychol Sci. 2010; 21 (7): 1028–35.


Shariff AF, Cohen AB, Norenzayan A. The devil’s advocate: Secular arguments diminish both implicit and explicit religious belief. J Cogn Cult. 2008; 8: 417–423.

Sharma M, Madhugiri V, Nanda A. James L. Poppen and Surgery of the “Seat of the Soul”: A Contemporary Perspective. World Neurosurg. 2014; 82(3–4): 529–534.

Shukla S, Acharya S, Rajput D. Neurotheology-Matters of the Mind or Matters that Mind? J Clin Diagn Res. 2013; 7(7): 1486–1490.

Simons DJ, Chabris CF. Gorillas in Our Midst: Sustained Inattentional Blindness for Dynamic Events. Percept. 1999; 28 (9): 1059–1074.

Simons DJ, Levin DT. Change blindness. Trends Cogn Sci. 1997; 1(7): 261–267.

Simons JS, Spiers HJ. Prefrontal and medial temporal lobe interactions in long-term memory. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2003; 4(8): 637–648.

Simpson WA, Shahani U, Manahilov V. Illusory percepts of moving patterns due to discrete temporal sampling. Neurosci Lett. 2005; 375(1): 23–27.

Sirota A, Csicsvari J, Buhl D, Buzsáki G. Communication between neocortex and hippocampus during sleep in rodents. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003; 100(4): 2065–2069.

Souchay C, Guillery-Girard B, Pauly-Takacs K, Wojcik D, Eustache F. Subjective Experience of Episodic Memory and Metacognition: A Neurodevelopmental Approach. Vol. 7, Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience. 2013. p. 212.

Squire LR. Memory and the hippocampus: A synthesis from findings with rats, monkeys, and humans. Vol. 99, Psychological Review. US: American Psychological Association; 1992. p. 195–231.

Squire LR. The Legacy of Patient H.M. for Neuroscience. Neuron. 2009; 61(1): 6–9.

Stapp HP. Mind, matter and quantum mechanics. Berlin, Heidelb Springer. 2009;

Starmans C, Bloom P. Windows to the soul: Children and adults see the eyes as the location of the self. Cognition. 2012; 123(2): 313–318.

Sterpenich V, Albouy G, Boly M, Vandewalle G, Darsaud A, Balteau E, et al. Sleep-Related Hippocampo-Cortical Interplay during Emotional Memory Recollection. PLOS Biol. 2007; 5(11): e282.

Suzuki WL, Amaral DG. Perirhinal and parahippocampal cortices of the macaque monkey: Cortical afferents. J Comp Neurol. 1994; 350(4): 497–533.

Takeuchi T, Duszkiewicz AJ, Morris RGM. The synaptic plasticity and memory hypothesis: encoding, storage and persistence. Philos Trans R Soc B Biol Sci. 2013; 369(1633).

Talarico JM, LaBar KS, Rubin DC. Emotional intensity predicts autobiographical memory experience. Mem Cognit. 2004; 32(7): 1118–1132.

Teyler TJ, DiScenna P. The hippocampal memory indexing theory. Vol. 100, Behavioral Neuroscience. US: American Psychological Association; 1986. p. 147–54.

Teyler TJ, Rudy JW. The hippocampal indexing theory and episodic memory: Updating the index. Hippocampus. 2007; 17(12): 1158–1169.

Toepper M, Markowitsch HJ, Gebhardt H, Beblo T, Thomas C, Gallhofer B, et al. Hippocampal involvement in working memory encoding of changing locations: an fMRI study. Brain Res. 2010; 1354: 91–99.

Tonegawa S, Pignatelli M, Roy DS, Ryan J. Memory engram storage and retrieval. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2015; 35: 101–109.

Tononi G, Cirelli C. Sleep and the Price of Plasticity: From Synaptic and Cellular Homeostasis to Memory Consolidation and Integration. Neuron. 2014; 81(1): 12–34.

Treisman AM, Gelade G. A feature-integration theory of attention. Cogn Psychol. 1980; 12(1): 97–136.

Tulving E. Elements of episodic memory. New York Oxford Univ Press. 1983;

Tulving E. Concepts of memory. New York: Oxford University Press.; 2000. p. 33–43.

Tulving E. Episodic Memory: From Mind to Brain. Annu Rev Psychol. 2002 Feb; 53(1): 1–25.

Turner M. Can the Effects of Religion and Spirituality on Both Physical and Mental Health be Scientifically Measured? An Overview of the Key Sources, with Particular Reference to the Teachings of Said Nursi. J Relig Health. 2015; 54(6): 2045–2051.

Uchida S, Martel G, Pavlowsky A, Takizawa S, Hevi C, Watanabe Y, et al. Learning-induced and stathmin-dependent changes in microtubule stability are critical for memory and disrupted in ageing. Nat Commun. 2014; 5: 4389.

Uhlmann EL, Poehlman TA, Bargh JA. Chapter 4 - Implicit Theism BT - Handbook of Motivation and Cognition Across Cultures. In San Diego: Academic Press; 2008. p. 71–94.

Ullman MT. A neurocognitive perspective on language: The declarative/procedural model. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2001; 2(10): 717–726.

Ungerleider LG, Mishkin M. Two cortical visual systems. In: Analysis of Visual Behavior. Boston, Mass, USA: MIT Press; 1982. p. 549–586.

VanRullen R, Reddy L, Koch C. Attention-driven discrete sampling of motion perception. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005; 102(14): 5291–6.

Vorster AP, Born J. Sleep and memory in mammals, birds and invertebrates. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2015; 50: 103–119.

Voss JL. Long-term associative memory capacity in man. Psychon Bull Rev. 2009; 16: 1076–1081.

Wagner U, Gais S, Haider H, Verleger R, Born J. Sleep inspires insight. Nature. 2004; 427(6972): 352–5.

Waites AB, Stanislavsky A, Abbott DF, Jackson GD. Effect of prior cognitive state on resting state networks measured with functional connectivity. Hum Brain Mapp. 2005; 24(1): 59–68.

Walker MP, Brakefield T, Morgan A, Hobson JA, Stickgold R. Practice with Sleep Makes Perfect. Neuron. 2002; 35(1): 205–211.

Walter H. Neurophilosophy of free will: From libertarian illusions to a concept of natural autonomy. Cambridge, MA, London Bradford Book, MIT Press. 2001;

Wamsley EJ. Dreaming and Offline Memory Consolidation. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2014; 14(3): 433.

Ward AF, Wegner DM. Mind-blanking: when the mind goes away. Front Psychol. 2013; 4(September): 1–15.

Watson BO, Buzsáki G. Sleep, Memory & Brain Rhythms. Daedalus. 2015; 144(1): 67–82.

Weber B, Wellmer J, Schür S, Dinkelacker V, Ruhlmann J, Mormann F, et al. Presurgical Language fMRI in Patients with Drug-resistant Epilepsy: Effects of Task Performance. Epilepsia. 2006; 47(5): 880–886.

Weber FD, Wang J-Y, Born J, Inostroza M. Sleep benefits in parallel implicit and explicit measures of episodic memory. Learn Mem. 2014; 21 (4): 190–198.

Wegner DM. The mind’s best trick: how we experience conscious will. Trends Cogn Sci. 2003 Nov 13; 7(2): 65–9.

West LJ, Janszen HH, Lester BK, Cornelisoon FS. THE PSYCHOSIS OF SLEEP DEPRIVATION. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1962; 96(1): 66–70.

Wheeler ME, Petersen SE, Buckner RL. Memory’s echo: Vivid remembering reactivates sensory-specific cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000; 97(20): 11125–11129.

Wickelgren WA. Human learning and memory. Annu Rev Psychol. 1981; 32: 21–52.

Wilhelm I, Diekelmann S, Born J. Sleep in children improves memory performance on declarative but not procedural tasks. Learn Mem. 2008; 15 (5): 373–377.

Wilson MA, McNaughton BL. Reactivation of hippocampal ensemble memories during sleep. Science (80- ). 1994; 265(5172): 676 LP – 679.

Winocur G, Moscovitch M, Bontempi B. Memory formation and long-term retention in humans and animals: Convergence towards a transformation account of hippocampal-neocortical interactions. Neuropsychologia. 2010; 48(8): 2339–2356.

Winson J. Loss of hippocampal theta rhythm results in spatial memory deficit in the rat. Science (80- ). 1978; 201(4351): 160 LP – 163.

Wittmann BC, Bunzeck N, Dolan RJ, Düzel E. Anticipation of novelty recruits reward system and hippocampus while promoting recollection. Neuroimage. 2007; 38(1): 194–202.

Womelsdorf T, Schoffelen J-M, Oostenveld R, Singer W, Desimone R, Engel AK, et al. Modulation of Neuronal Interactions Through Neuronal Synchronization. Science (80- ). 2007; 316(5831): 1609 LP – 1612.

Xie L, Kang H, Xu Q, Chen MJ, Liao Y, Thiyagarajan M, et al. Sleep Drives Metabolite Clearance from the Adult Brain. Science. 2013; 342(6156): 10.1126/science.1241224.

Xu T, Yu X, Perlik AJ, Tobin WF, Zweig JA, Tennant K, et al. Rapid formation and selective stabilization of synapses for enduring motor memories. Nature. 2009; 462(7275): 915–919.

Yang G, Pan F, Gan W-B. Stably maintained dendritic spines are associated with lifelong memories. Nature. 2009; 462(7275): 920–924.

Yoo S-S, Hu PT, Gujar N, Jolesz FA, Walker MP. A deficit in the ability to form new human memories without sleep. Nat Neurosci. 2007; 10(3): 385–392.

Zola-Morgan S, Squire LR, Amaral DG. Human amnesia and the medial temporal region: enduring memory impairment following a bilateral lesion limited to field CA1 of the hippocampus. J Neurosci. 1986; 6(10): 2950 LP – 2967.

Zola-Morgan S, Squire LR, Ramus SJ. Severity of memory impairment in monkeys as a function of locus and extent of damage within the medial temporal lobe memory system. Hippocampus. 1994; 4(4): 483–495.

World Values Survey. 2006.

Supporting Agencies


| NeuroScience + QuantumPhysics> NeuroQuantology :: Copyright 2001-2019