DOI: 10.14704/nq.2018.16.9.1599

The Causes of the Hard Problem: A Note

Greg P. Hodes


This note calls attention to the fact that efficient causes – the sort of cause that changes something or makes something happen – can play no constit-utive role in the immediate cognitively conscious relation between cognitive subject and a cognitive object. It argues that: (1) it is a necessary condition for there being an efficient causal relation that it alter its relata; and (2) it is a necessary condition for being a conscious cognitive relation that it does not alter its relata. This has important implication for the theories of knowledge and consciousness,“the hard problem,” and related puzzles.


cognitive consciousness; hard problem; mind-brain; causes of consciousness; consciousness. efficient causes

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